EPIIC Archives


Course Description | Outward Bound | Lecturers and Advisors | Committees | Leader-in-Residence | Scholar-in-Residence | Practitioner-in-Residence | Independent Research/Immersive Education | Rigor in Research | Symposium | Special Opportunities | Inquiry | Syllabus | Colloquium Members

Course Description

From the disbanding of Knights Templars in 1307 to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; from the establishment of the Bretton Woods global economic regime in 1945 to current alleged "imperial nation-buildinglite" in Afghanistan, this year-long course will examine the evolving norms and rules of sovereignty in global politics. Is sovereignty a requirement for global security and prosperity? Or is it, as one analyst has stated, "organized hypocrisy"? With globalization, will we witness the retreat or the renewal of the legitimacy of state power? What are the "prerogatives of power and the limitations of law" in contemporary world politics? How should sovereignty be understood in an era of global non-state terrorism? Of state-sponsored terrorism? Our inquiry will be broad-ranging and multi disciplinary, probing current intellectual and policy debates, from the vexing issues of intervention, secession and self-determination, in such places as Eritrea and Kashmir, to the interdependent challenges of globalization. What challenges are presented to the global order by failing and failed states, from Colombia to Somalia? What was U.S. foreign policy decisionmaking in interventions in Somalia, Bosnia, and Venezuela? Russian policy in Chechnya? Why did intervention occur in Kosovo but not in Rwanda? In Sarajevo but not in Grozny? What are the consequences? How do we understand contested sovereignty in the West Bank? When should intervention occur, under whose authority, and how? How should Article 51 of the UN Charter regarding "selfdefense" be interpreted? We will probe national, unilateral interventionary actions as well as multilateral and alliance interventions. And we will examine the multiple, controversial mandates and cross border deployments of United Nations peacekeeping forces, including the creation of enclaves in Iraqi Kurdistan; the establishment of the temporary international trusteeship in Cambodia; the oversight of transitions to democracy in El Salvador and Mozambique; and the monitoring of borders to prevent conflict in Macedonia. What are the challenges of peacekeeping vs. peacemaking? What are the norms of coercive inducement? Of sanctions? What are the ethics, politics and costs of political interventions, from reversing coups to preemptive action aimed at destroying weapons of mass destruction? Is the concept of "armed humanitarianism" an oxymoron or a critical ingredient of global security? What are the roles for national or private armies? What are the impacts of humanitarian interventions, from preventing genocide or famine to disaster relief? What are the appropriate roles of governments, non-governmental organizations, and private voluntary organizations? How should we judge the legitimacy and accountability of NGO's? We will be concerned with dilemmas of individual vs. state sovereignty in human rights. How will the International Criminal Court and other international jurisdictional changes affect the Westphalian order? How do mass killings, refugees and the internally displaced peoples stress state sovereignty? In the international political economy, how are factors of technology and finance, transnational corporations, massive immigration, and the transborder flows of labor and capital transforming sovereignty? Have the power of markets and free trade outgrown the capacities of national governments? How will non-state authorities, such as accounting firms, influence the behavior of states? What is the efficacy of emergency economic intervention to change production structures, to create jobs, to employ former soldiers and to reduce unemployment? To offer, or to withhold credit? How have the leverage of international debt regimes, the structural adjustment demands of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and other international financial institutions transfigured sovereignty? What is the impact of tax havens and the commercialization of state sovereignty? How will the effects of volatile casino economies, transnational crime and corruption, and criminal cartels influence sovereign control and responses? And systemically, how are global ecological and environmental dilemmas and threats affecting, and affected by, sovereignty? What challenges do they and the "greening of sovereignty" pose for global governance? What is the relationship between international media regulations and efforts by nation-states to assert sovereignty and shape their images? How is sovereignty affected by remote sensing satellites? What is the impact of global telecoms and of Freedom of Information Act networks on knowledge structures? How do they control access to information, defining knowledge or influencing identity? Stretching the envelope, we will also be concerned with dilemmas of individual sovereignty in genomics. What will be the impact of the new maps of DNA knowledge and the transformative or transmogrifying power of biotechnology? REQUIRED AND RECOMMENDED TEXTS (To be read and referenced over two semesters) - Revolutions in Sovereignty: How Ideas Shaped Modern International Relations, Daniel Philpott - The Shield of Achilles: War, Peace and the Course of History, Philip Bobbitt - Beyond Westphalia? State Sovereignty and International Intervention, Gene Lyons and Michael Mastanduno, eds. - Altered States: Globalization, Sovereignty, and Governance, Gordon Smith and Moises Naim - Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy, Stephen D. Krasner - The Retreat of the State: The Diffusion of Power in the World Economy, Susan Strange - The Responsibility to Protect, Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty - Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention, Barbara F. Walter and Jack Snyder, eds. - Turbulent Peace, The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, Chester Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson and Pamela Aall, eds. - Quasi-States: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World, Robert H. Jackson - Empire, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri - Limits of Law, Prerogatives of Power: Interventionism after Kosovo, Michael Glennon - New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Mary Kaldor - War Over Kosovo, Andrew Bacewich and Eliot Cohen, eds. - Intervention: The Use of American Military Force in the Post-Cold War World, Richard N. Haass - Virtual War: Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry, Michael Ignatieff - The Humanitarian Enterprise: Dilemmas and Discoveries, Larry Minear - Hard Choices: Moral Dilemmas in Humanitarian Intervention, Jonathan Moore, ed. - Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society, Nicholas J. Wheeler - The Ethics and Politics of Humanitarian Intervention, Stanley Hoffmann - The Man Who Tried To Save the World: The Dangerous Life and Mysterious Disappearance of Fred Cuny, Scott Anderson - Saving Lives with Force: Military Criteria for Humanitarian Intervention, Michael O'Hanlon - The Price of Peace: Emergency Economic Intervention and U.S. Foreign Policy, David J. Rothkopf - Sovereignty as Responsibility: Conflict Management in Africa, Francis M. Deng, ed. - The Greening of Sovereignty in World Politics, Karen Litfin, ed.

Outward Bound Immersion

September 20-22, 2002 Sovereignty, Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy Resource scholars: The Honorable John Shattuck He is the chief executive officer of the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation; former U.S. Ambassador to the Czech Republic; and former Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. He is the author of Freedom on Fire: Human Rights, Wars and the Roots of Terrorism. While serving in his Assistant Secretary of State position, he worked to end the war in Bosnia and negotiate the Dayton Peace Agreement; establish the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda; restore a democratically-elected government to Haiti; administer U. S. assistance to new and emerging democracies; and raise the profile of human rights in U.S. foreign policy after the end of the Cold War. As the executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union and national ACLU staff counsel from 1971 to 1984, he was involved in all major civil-rights and civil liberties issues during the Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan administrations. During and after the Watergate crisis, he handled a number of prominent court cases on behalf of people who had been the targets of illegal political surveillance and wiretapping by the Nixon White House. Recipient, Roger Baldwin Award for his national contribution to civil liberties. Ellen Hume She is an experienced journalist, teacher, speaker, administrator, conference director and television commentator. While living in Prague, Czech Republic, from 1998-2000, she updated her thinking about journalism, the Internet and democracy, originally published in her prizewinning 1995 study, Tabloids, Talk Radio and the Future of News. As the founding Executive Director of PBS's Democracy Project, from 1996 to 1998, she developed special news programs that encouraged citizen involvement in public affairs. From 1988 to 1993, Hume served as Executive Director and Senior Fellow at Harvard University's Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy. The recipient of numerous honors and fellowships, Hume has conducted journalism and democracy workshops throughout the United States, in Russia, Bosnia, Poland and the Czech Republic.

Lecturers and Advisors

September 2002 - February 2003 Andrew Bacevich Professor of International Relations, Boston University; coeditor, War Over Kosovo: Politics and Strategy in a Global Age; author, The Pentomic Era: The U.S. Army Between Korea and Vietnam

Denise Castronovo Academic Technology and GIS Specialist, Tufts University Computer Services Department

Michael Doyle Edwards S. Sanford Professor of International Affairs, Professor of Politics and International Affairs, and Director of the Center of International Studies, Princeton University. He is the author of Ways of War and Peace, a study of political philosophies of international relations, Empires, and UN Peacekeeping in Cambodia.

Juan Enriquez Author, As The Future Catches You and Flags, Borders, Anthems, and Other Myths; director, Life Sciences Project, Harvard Business School

Michael Glennon Professor of International Politics, The Fletcher School, Tufts University; Fellow, Woodrow Wilson Project "American Hegemony, Interventionism, and the Rule of Law"; author, Limits of Law, Prerogatives of Power: Interventionism after Kosovo; former legal counsel, U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee

Neva Goodwin, Co-director, The Global Development and Environment Institute (to be confirmed); editor, Michigan Press series on Evolving Values for a Capitalist World; supervisor, six-volume series Frontier Issues in Economic Thought

Hurst Hannum Professor of International Law, The Fletcher School, Tufts University; author, Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights; legal consultant on East Timor, United Nations

Ian Johnstone Professor of International Law, The Fletcher School, Tufts University; author, Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador and Aftermath of the Gulf War: An Assessment of UN Action; Officer, United Nations Peacekeeping

Stephen Krasner Senior director, National Security Council; professor of Political Science, Stanford University; author, Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy, Problematic Sovereignty, and Structural Conflict: The Third World Against Global Liberalism

Pierre-Henri Laurent Professor of History, Tufts University; editor, The European Community: To Maasricht and Beyond and The State of the European Union

Larry Minear Director, Humanitarianism and War Project, Feinstein International Famine Center, School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University; author, The Humanitarian Enterprise: Dilemmas and Discoveries

William R. Moomaw Professor of International Environmental Policy, director, Tufts Institute of the Environment, co-director, Public Disputes Program, Program on Negotiations, The Fletcher School, Tufts University; convening lead author, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2000

Amb. Jonathan Moore Author, Hard Choices: Moral Dilemmas in Humanitarian Intervention and The UN and Complex Emergencies; senior adviser, United Nations Development Programme; former director, Institute of Politics, Harvard University

Agnes Nindorera Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy, Center for Human Rights and Conflict Management; Burundian Journalist, Radio Bujumbura; Former Nieman Fellow

Peter Rosenblum Projects director, Harvard Human Rights Program, Harvard Law School; former program director, International Human Rights Law Group; former human rights officer, United Nations Centre for Human Rights, Geneva

Rhonda Ryznar Lecturer, Academic Technology, Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning Department, Tufts University.

Tony Smith Professor of Political Science, Tufts University; author, Foreign Attachments: The Power of Ethnic Groups in the Making of American Foreign Policy, America's Mission: The U.S. and the Global Struggle for Democracy in the 20th Century, and "Good, Smart, or Bad Samaritan: A Case for U.S. Military Intervention for Democracy and Human Rights"

Jeffrey Taliaferro Professor, Department of Political Science, Tufts University

Peter Uvin, director, Program on Human Security, and professor of International Humanitarian Studies, The Fletcher School, Tufts University; author, The Influence of Aid in Situations of Violent Conflict, Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda, and "Ethics and the New Post-Conflict Agenda"

Peter Walker Director, Feinstein International Famine Center, Tufts University; former head, Disasters Policy Department, The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva; managing editor, World Disasters Report; director, Humanitarian Accountability Project

Abiodun Williams (F'85) Director, Strategic Planning Unit, Executive Office of the Secretary General of the United Nations; former special assistant to the Deputy Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General, United Nations Mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Haiti, and Macedonia; author, Preventing War: The United Nations and Macedonia

Peter Winn Professor of History, Tufts University; author, Americas: The Changing Face of Latin America and the Caribbean; academic consultant, Americas, PBS


Inaugural Leader-in-Residence

Roelf Meyer Chairman, Civil Society Initiative, South Africa; former Minister of Constitutional Affairs, South Africa (during both the De Klerk and Mandela presidencies); chief negotiator, National Party, talks to end apartheid. More info


Gwyn Prins Coauthor, Understanding Unilateralism in American Foreign Relations; author, The Heart of War: On Power, Conflict and Obligation in the 21st Century; former senior Fellow, Office of the Special Adviser on Central and Eastern European Affairs, Office of the Secretary-General, NATO; Alliance Research Professor, European Institute, London School of Economics and Columbia University Phillip Bobbit Author, The Shield of Achilles: War, Peace and the Course of History, Democracy and Deterrence, and Tragic Choices; former director of intelligence, National Security Council; A. W. Walker Centennial Professor of Law, University of Texas More info


Timothy Phillips Founding co-chair of The Project on Justice in Times of Transition, now at Harvard University, is also a consultant to non-governmental organizations in the United States and abroad, including the US Agency for International Development (USAID) More info

Independent Research/Immersive Education

You need not go any further than your library and computer web sources to have a powerful and rewarding research experience, or you can carefully plan a project that takes you beyond the campus. EPIIC provides unusual opportunities for students to conduct research related to its annual theme. Last year, EPIIC students traveled to Egypt, Pakistan, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Uganda, pursuing individually designed research projects. Potential research topics can either be theoretical or grounded in case-studies, e.g. identify the conditions under which it makes sense for the United States to pursue hegemonic power in the international realm, including arms control, human rights, and international environmental law; the use of refugees as political and military weapons in coercive diplomacy; tax havens and the commercialization of state sovereignty; the oxymoron of coercive humanitarianism, humanitarian intervention and U.S. policy; intervention and weapons of mass destruction; contested sovereignty, the tragedy of Chechnya or the struggle for a Palestinian state; the economics of conflict and relief interventions; the efficacy of economic sanctions; sovereignty and Native Americans in the twenty-first century; dilemmas of indigenous peoples' sovereignty and transnational corporations; and the global information revolution's challenge to the state. Your imagination, a disciplined mind, safety, and financing are the limits.

Rigor in Research

There is no statistical or methods prerequisite for this course. We will emphasize strengthening your quantitative, qualitative and analytical skills to help you match your research interests and questions with the most effective and appropriate methodology. Working with us will be Dr. Patrick Ball, deputy director of the American Association for the Advancement of Science's program in Science and Human Rights, an expert on statistics and computer methodologies; Professor Jim Ennis of Sociology; Susan Ernst, Dean of Research; Lisa Lynch, The Fletcher School; Beatrice Rogers, Academic Dean, School of Nutrition; and Dawn Geronimo Terkla, director of Institutional Research. -top-

International Symposium

The international symposium is an annual public forum designed and enacted by the EPIIC students. It features scores of international practitioners, academics, public intellectuals, activists, and journalists in panel discussions and workshops. This year, two of the Dr. Jean Mayer Global Citizenship Award recipients are David Halberstam and Leslie Gelb. David Halberstam is one of the nation's most distinguished social and political commentators, having written more than 13 books. His classic works include The Best and the Brightest, The Powers that Be, and The Reckoning. His most recent work is War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals. While he was at The New York Times, he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his reporting on Vietnam.
Leslie Gelb, a Tufts alumnus, is currently the president of the Council on Foreign Relations. Prior to joining the Council, he held many notable positions at The New York Times, including Op-Ed page editor. In 1986, he won the Pulitzer Prize for explanatory journalism. Dr. Gelb also was an Assistant Secretary of State for Politico-Military Affairs and the director of policy planning and arms control for International Security Affairs at the U.S. Department of Defense.

Special Opportunities: Projected/Potential Events and Projects

Voices From the Field As part of Tufts' 150th anniversary, the Institute for Global Leadership hosted "Voices from the Field: Distinguished Young Leaders in International Public Service". The "Voices" are Tufts alumni who have been integrally involved in complex humanitarian emergencies, human rights work, refugee assistance, United Nations peacekeeping and other missions, preventive diplomacy, and conflict resolution. They have worked in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bosnia, East Timor, Eritrea, Guatemala, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa. They will return to participate in the EPIIC symposium weekend, a workshop, and career consultations. Contested Sovereignty: The Israeli/Palestinian Conflict Search For Common Ground, A Case Study in Virtual Diplomacy What are the links between policy, peace and geography? What was offered and rejected at Camp David? At Taba? What physical, political and economic prerequisites would allow for a viable Palestinian state to emerge in the West Bank and Gaza? What physical terms would allow for a secure Israel? Considering geographical contiguity, resource use, access to water, road networks and other infrastructure, demographic factors, Israeli settlements, demilitarized areas, buffer zones, surveillance sites...how can a potential two state solution be implemented? How should sovereignty in Jerusalem be adjudicated? What land exchanges and territorial rectifications are feasible? Where might a hypothetical NATO or other intervention force be located? This year EPIIC began a multi year initiative to consider the Israeli-Palestinian conflict through the prism of geography. Students examined the actual intended physical realities and consequences of the proposed Taba and Camp David aborted peace initiatives, began consideration of the physical prerequisites of a potential viable Palestinian State on the West Bank and Gaza, and the physical dimensions of demilitarization in the area. Intended as a long term GIS initiative with the GIS center of the Tisch Library, this year students mounted a critique and amplification of the controversial Israeli architect's exhibit banned in Berlin....and hosted by its creators, Rafi Segal and Eyal Weizman. As part of the orientation to this project Profesor Oren Yiftachel, the chairman of the department of Geography at Ben Gurion University spoke on the status of a shared Jerusalem and indicated his willingness to host students at his University Beersheva and at the NASA research center in Israel. Project advisers include: - Geoffrey Aronson A'76, director, Research and Publications, Foundation for Middle East Peace - Daniel Dubno, technologist and coordinator Special Events Unit, CBS News; pioneer in powerful graphic technologies, satellite imagery and visualization tools for major international news stories - Dr. Richard Johnson; former commander, U.S. Army Topographic Engineering Center; supervisor, Dayton Proximity Peace Talks - Jan de Jong, land use planning and documentation consultant, cartographer, FMEP - Mouin Rabbani A'87, director, Palestinian American Research Committee, Ramallah - Reed Kram, architect, Visual Artist, koolhaus, Sweden - Rhonda Ryznar, director, Tufts Geographic Information System Center - Muhammed Tal; senior adviser, Jordanian Mission to the UN - Salim Tamari, director, Institute of Jerusalem Studies; former coordinator, Palestinian Team, the Multilateral Peace Negotiations - Eyal Weizman, architect; author, "Politics of Vertical Geography: From Settlements to Sewage, from Archaeology to Apaches" - Oren Yiftachel, professor of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben Gurion University of the Negev; author, "Planning as Control: Policy and Resistance in Deeply Divided Societies" Collaborators include: Faculty for Israeli Palestinian Peace, the Foundation For Middle East Peace, the International Crisis Group, and The Tufts Geographic Information System Center. Project on International Corporate Governance and Accountability Assist in thinking through criteria, norms, standards, and best practices issues related to advising multinational companies and sovereign nations on human rights, labor, and environmental standards. Advisers include: - Dan Feldman, attorney, Division of Corporate Social Responsibility, Foley Hoag & Elliot - Lawrence E. Mitchell, John Theodore Fey Research Professor of Law at The George Washington University; author, Corporate Irresponsibility: America's Newest Export; director, International Institute for Corporate Governance and Accountability - April Powell-Willingham, director, Combined Programs in Ethics, Inclusion and Social Justice, and director, The Brandeis Institute for International Judges, Brandeis University - Balakrishnan Rajagopal, director, Program on Human Rights and Justice, MIT - Gare Smith, attorney and head, Division Of Corporate Social Responsibility, Foley Hoag & Elliot; former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights, U.S. Department of State Film Series Work with Human Rights Watch and others to create a campus film and speaker series around this year's theme, e.g. UN peacekeeping: "The Last Just Man", the story of Major-General Romeo Dallaire, in Rwanda in 1994 and "CRAZY", on the Dutch UN troops in Srebrenica. Ms. Andrea Holley, director of Outreach and Public Education for HRW and the director of the HRW International Film Festival, will lecture on the intervention/non-intervention discourse with clips from Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Gaza. Sovereignty and Identity: Music From national anthems to world and fusion music, work with Tunde Jegede, a renowned, London-based international composer, musician, and performer, and with local Tufts and Berklee College of Music faculty and students to conceptualize performances and forums, to demonstrate and discuss music, and to break down stigmatized cultural barriers. A cellist and kora (harp-lute) player, Jegede's work bridges African and Western Classical music, influencing his collaborative work with other artists in folk, jazz and world music. The first Innovations Composer of the Eastern Orchestral Board, he has composed and developed an orchestral repertoire for the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Britten Sinfonia, the London Mozart Players, and his work String Quartet No. 2 has been performed by the Brodsky String Quartet for their Beethoven Opus 18 project. Jegede is also the co-founder of The Axiom Foundation, a guild of composers known as "The Hermetic Renaissance". His albums include "Light in the Circle of Truth", performed with the London Sinfonietta, which also premiered his orchestral version of "Cycle of Reckoning" from the BBC2 television documentary about his work called Africa, I Remember. Sovereignty and Identity: Art Work with EPIIC veteran Kevin McCauley, a School of the Museum of Fine Arts graduate, on an exhibit of his art that he calls "Internal Migrations." McCauley received his MA from the University of Cape Town in sculpture and Postcolonial Studies and African Disapora Studies. "Who are the stateless peoples who reside and make commerce inside yourself?.....Internal Migrations" seeks to draw a parallel between the securities and inadequacies of the nation-state system and the success and failures of our notions of selfhood Global structures of citizenship are as powerfully exclusive as they inclusive. Similarly, modernist notions of the human subject obscure powerful aspects of the human psyche at the very moment they offer workable images of our selves." INQUIRY April 10-13, 2003 Inquiry is EPIIC's international high school global issues simulation program. The topic for 2002-03 is Sovereignty and Intervention in Africa. In pairs, students mentor (in person and via email) a high school delegation -- helping them understand the materials and issues, as well as preparing them for the simulation and facilitate the discussions at the culminating simulation on the Tufts campus April 10-13, 2003. Over 30 delegations from national public, private, and parochial high schools in seven states -- Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, and Ohio -- and Washington, DC will participate in the program. For those of you interested in EPIIC but unable to commit the required time, there is an exciting full-credit, two-semester option available to participate in the Inquiry Teaching Group (EXP 91AF), EPIIC's secondary school program. In this, you will mentor national and international high school students, preparing them for the culminating role-playing simulation on sovereignty and intervention in Africa. The simulation will be designed by the EPIIC and the teaching group students, and it will be held at Tufts April 10-13, 2003. -top-


Tuesday, September 3

First day of class


Thursday, September 5

Overview of GIS Project
Guest Speakers:
Rhonda Ryznar &
Denise Castronovo


Tuesday, September 10


  • Altered States Globalization, Sovereignty and Governance, Gordon Smith and Moises Naim (handout)
  • "Prologue" and "Introduction", from The Shield of Achilles, Philip Bobbit

    Thursday, September 12

    Guest Lecturer:
    Professor Pierre Laurent, History Department; author, European Integration: Theories and Approaches; editor, The European Community: To Maasricht and Beyond and The State of the European Union


  • Beyond Westphalia: State Sovereignty and International Intervention, Lyons and Mastanduno (Introduction and Chapters 4 and 9) (book in the bookstore)
  • "Are There Limits to EU Power Expansion?", from Sovereignty and European Integration, Madeline Wind (handout)
  • "The Victory of the Sovereign State", from The Sovereign State and Its Competitors, Hendrik Spryut (handout)

    From the Inquiry Reader:

  • "A Brief History of Constitutions of International Society in the West", Daniel Philpott -- 3
  • "Conclusion: Two Revolutions, One Movement", Daniel Philpott -- 8
  • "Despite Global Changes, National Sovereignty Remains King", William Pfaff -- 23

    Tuesday, September 17

    Guest Lecturer:
    Juan Enriquez is a senior research fellow and director of the Harvard Business School Life Science Project. His most recent book is As the Future Catches You: How Genomics & Other Forces are Changing Your Life, Work, Heath & Wealth. He is finishing Flags, Borders, Anthems, and Other Myths: The Impulse Towards Secession and the Americas, a book which looks at the effect of globalization and democracy on the Americas and its borders.

    He previously served as CEO of Mexico City's Urban Development Corporation, coordinator general of economic policy and chief of staff for Mexico's Secretary of State, and a member of the Peace Commission that negotiated the cease-fire in Chiapas' Zapatista rebellion.


  • Selections from As the Future Catches You by Juan Enriquez (handout) (if you want to read the full book, the office has several copies that you can borrow)

    From the Inquiry Reader:

  • "Too Many Flags?", Juan Enriquez -- 70

    Thursday, September 19

    Review of Readings to Date
    From the Inquiry Reader:

  • "Sovereignty and Globalization: Government in a State of Confusion", Gordon Smith and Moises Naim -- 14
  • "Sovereignty", Stephen D. Krasner -- 24
  • "When Worlds Collide: A Debate", Marc A. Thiessen and Mark Leonard -- 31
  • "International Law: The Trials of Global Norms", Steven R. Ratner -- 42
  • "Self-Determination in an Interdependent World", Strobe Talbott -- 58

    Friday, September 20-Sunday, September 22

    Outward Bound Immersion Weekend

    Sovereignty, Human Rights, and U.S. Foreign Policy Guest Speakers:
    The Honorable John Shattuck: He is the chief executive officer of the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation; former U.S. Ambassador to the Czech Republic; and former Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. He is the author of Freedom on Fire: Human Rights, Wars and the Roots of Terrorism. While serving in his Assistant Secretary of State position, he worked to end the war in Bosnia and negotiate the Dayton Peace Agreement; establish the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda; restore a democratically-elected government to Haiti; administer U. S. assistance to new and emerging democracies; and raise the profile of human rights in U.S. foreign policy after the end of the Cold War. As the executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union and national ACLU staff counsel from 1971 to 1984, he was involved in all major civil-rights and civil-liberties issues during the Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan administrations.

    Ellen Hume is an experienced journalist, teacher, speaker, administrator, conference director and television commentator. While living in Prague, Czech Republic, from 1998-2000, she updated her thinking about journalism, the Internet and democracy, originally published in her prizewinning 1995 study, Tabloids, Talk Radio and the Future of News. As the founding Executive Director of PBS's Democracy Project, from 1996 to 1998, she developed special news programs that encouraged citizen involvement in public affairs. From 1988 to 1993, Hume served as Executive Director and Senior Fellow at Harvard University's Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy. The recipient of numerous honors and fellowships, Hume has conducted journalism and democracy workshops throughout the United States, in Russia, Bosnia, Poland and the Czech Republic.

    Required Readings:

  • Freedom on Fire: Human Rights and the Roots of Terror, by John Shattuck (manuscript)(handout)
  • "Heartened In Haiti," in Democracy By Force: U.S. Military Interventionism In The Post Cold War World, by Karin von Hippel (handout)
  • "Building Peace In Bosnia," by Elizabeth Cousens, and "Peacebuilding in Haiti," by Chetan Kumar, in Peacebuilding As Politics: Cultivating Peace In Fragile Societies, edited by Elizabeth Cousens and Chetan Kumar (handout)
  • "Bosnia," and "Haiti," by Chantal de Jonge Oudraat, in Coercive Inducement and the Containment of International Crises, edited by Donald C. Daniel, Bradd C. Hayes, and Chantal de Jonge Oudraat (handout)
  • "The Perils of Info-Democracy, " by Ted Koppel in Managing Global Chaos, edited by Chester A. Crocker and Fen Osler with Pamela Aall (handout)
  • "The Media and U.S. Policies Toward Intervention: A Closer Look at the 'CNN Effect'" by Warren Strobel in Managing Global Chaos, edited by Chester A. Crocker and Fen Osler with Pamela Aall (handout)
  • "Rulers and Ruled: Human Rights" in Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy, by Stephen D. Krasner (book in the book store)
  • Human Rights as Politcs and Idolatry, Michael Ignatieff (handout)

    Recommended Readings:

  • "Iraq: Containing Saddam Hussein after the Gulf War" in Rogue States and U.S. Foreign Policy by Robert S. Litwak (handout)
  • "Iraq's Repression of Its Civilian Population: Collective Responses and Continuing Challenges", by Jane E. Stromseth, from Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts, Lori Fisler Damrosch (ed.) (handout)

    Tuesday, September 24

    Reaction To Outward Bound

    Film: "Forsaken Cries: The Story of Rwanda", Amnesty International

    Thursday, September 26

    Rwanda, Central Africa and Intervention

    Guest Lecturer:
    Peter Rosenblum
    Clinical Director Peter Rosenblum joined the Human Rights Program at the Harvard Law School in the fall of 1996 and served as Associate Director until 2002. He holds an academic appointment as lecturer at the law school and oversees voluntary and for-credit human rights projects with students. He was formerly Program Director for the International Human Rights Law Group and Human Rights Officer for the United Nations Centre for Human Rights. He has engaged in human rights research and field missions in Africa, Eastern Europe, and Asia. His recent writing addresses human rights topics affecting Africa and human rights pedagogy in the United States.

    Readings (a few more will be added):

  • Chapter 4: "Military Intervention in Rwanda's 'Two Wars': Partisanship and Indifference" (p.116-145), by Bruce D. Jones, from Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention, Barbara F. Walter and Jack Snyder (eds.) (book is in the book store)
  • "Intervention Is a Response to a New Moral Narrative", by Peter Rosenblum, Public Affairs Report, January 2000 (handout)
  • "Bystanders to Genocide: Why the United States Let the Rwandan Tragedy Happen", by Samantha Power, The Atlantic Monthly, September 2001(handout)
  • "Rwanda: Seven Years after the Genocide", by Donald M. Payne and Ted Dagne, Mediterranean Quarterly, Winter 2002 (handout)
  • "The Defendant", from The Graves Are Not Yet Full: Race, Tribe and Power in the Heart of Africa by Bill Berkeley (handout) From the Inquiry Reader:
  • "Regional Perspectives on Sovereignty and Intervention", Adonia Ayebare -- 286
  • "Think Again: Africa", Marina Ottoway -- 288
  • "African Responses to African Crises: Creating a Military Response", Robert I. Rotberg -- 307
  • "Military Intervention in Africa: Intervention Unbound", Alex de Waal -- 314
  • "U.S. Human Rights Policy toward Africa", Debra Liang-Fenton -- 327
  • "Global Bystander to Genocide: International Society and the Rwandan Genocide of 1994", Nicholas J. Wheeler -- 379

    Tuesday, October 1

    Israel - Palestine

    Guest Lecturer:
    Barbara F. Walter, who is currently an associate professor at the Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at the University of California, San Diego. Prior to coming to UCSD she was a post doctoral fellow at the Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University and a post-doctoral fellow at the War and Peace Institute at Columbia University. Publications include: "The Critical Barrier to Civil War Settlement"; "Designing Transitions from Violent Civil War"; Civil Wars, Insecurity and Intervention (co edited with Jack Snyder); Committing to Peace: The Successful Settlement of Civil Wars; and "Sabotaging the Peace: The Politics of Extremist Violence," International Organization, Spring 2002, with Andrew Kydd. She is currently working on a new project on the persistence of territorial conflict.


  • Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention, Barbara F. Walter and Jack Snyder (eds.)
  • Chapter 1: "Civil War and the Security Dilemma", by Jack Snyder and Robert Jervis (p. 15-37)
  • Chapter 2: "Designing Transitions from Civil War", by Barbara F. Walter (p. 38-72)
  • Chapter 7: "When All Else Fails: Evaluating Population Transfers and Partition as Solutions to Ethnic Conflict", by Chaim D. Kaufmann (p. 221-260)
  • Chapter 8: "The Rationality of Fear: Political Opportunism and Ethnic Conflict", by Rui J.P. De Figueiredo Jr. And Barry R. Weingast (p. 261-302)
  • Chapter 9: "Conclusion", Barbara F. Walter (p. 303-310)
  • A Concise History of the Arab-Palestinian Conflict, Ian Bickerton and Carla Klausner (handout)
  • Chapter 8: The Search for Peace, 1973-1979 (p. 183-209)
  • Chapter 9: "Lebanon and the Intifada" (p. 210-243)
  • Chapter 10: "The Peace of the Brave" (p. 244-279)
  • Chapter 11: "The Peace Progresses" (p. 280-312)
  • Chapter 12: "Collapse of the Peace Process" (p. 313-351)
  • "Conclusion" (p. 352-360)
  • Problematic Sovereignty: Contested Rules and Political Possibilities, Stephen D. Krasner (ed.) (in the book store)
  • Chapter 10: "The Road to Palestinan Sovereignty: Problematic Structures or Conventional Obstacles?", by Shibley Telhami (p.301-322)


    Thursday, October 3

    In-Class Exam

    Sunday, October 6

    Rabb Room, Lincoln Filene Building, 1:00-5:00pm

    Guest Lecturer:
    Philip Bobbitt
    One of the nation's leading constitutional theorists, Professor Bobbitt's interests include not only constitutional law but also international security and the history of strategy. He has published six books: Constitutional Interpretation (1991), Democracy and Deterrence (1987), U.S. Nuclear Strategy (with Freedman and Treverton, 1989), Constitutional Fate (1982), Tragic Choices (with Calabresi, 1978) and most recently The Shield of Achilles: War, Peace and the Course of History (2002). He has served as associate counsel to the President; the counselor on International Law at the U.S. State Department; legal counsel to the Senate Iran Contra Committee; and director for Intelligence, senior director for Critical Infrastructure, and senior director for Strategic Planning at the National Security Council. Bobbitt teaches constitutional law at the University of Texas, where he holds the A. W. Walker Centennial Chair.

    Readings from The Shield of Achilles:

  • Chapter 5: "Strategy and the Constitutional Order"
  • Chapter 13: "The Wars of Market-State: Conclusion to Book I"
  • Introduction to Book II: "The Origin of International Law in the Constitutional Order"
  • Chapter 17: " Peace and the International Order"

    In War and Peace:

  • Book I: States of War: Elana, Zaki, Rebecca V., Lindsay, Naomi, Alia, Christine, Rob Sm., Aaron, Rebecca F., Lauren, Leah, Natalia, Mayte, Andrea, Jenna, Sarah Kl., Liv, Amiti, Zeleka, Sarah B., Lulu, Eugene, Rachel, Robina, Vicky, Damaris, Laura R.
  • Book II: States of Peace: Zachary, Ben, Rob Sw., Kate, Nick, Hank, JR, Laura, Anya, Rachel, Sonia, Shai, Alex, Joe B., Elliot, Natica, Jen, Asi, Maarouf, Jeremy, Joe J., Frances, Margaret, Cedza, Nikais, Daniel S., Kari, Narissa, Daniel M.

    Tuesday, October 8


    Guest Lecturer:
    Philip Bobbitt

    Readings from The Shield of Achilles:

  • Chapter 24: "Challenges to the New International Order"
  • Chapter 25: "Possible Worlds"
  • Chapter 26: "The Coming Age of War and Peace"
  • Chapter 27: "Peace in the Society of Market-States: Conclusion to Book II"
  • Epilogue
  • Postscript: The Indian Summer

    Thursday, October 10

    Review of Bobbitt


    Tuesday, October 15

    No Class (Monday's Schedule)

    Thursday, October 17th

    Central African Crisis - An Update

    Guest Lecturer: Ms. Agnes Nindorera
    Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy, Center for Human Rights and Conflict Management; Burundian Journalist, Radio Bujumbura; Former Nieman Fellow


  • Review Rwanda readings and readings on Africa from the Inquiry reader
  • Frontline Chronologies


    Tuesday, October 22

    US Foreign Policy: Empire and Realism, Intervention from Kosovo to Iraq

    Guest Lecturer: Andrew Bacevich
    Professor and director, Center forInternational Relations, Boston University; coauthor, War Over Kosovo: Politics and Strategy in A Global Age; author, American Empire


  • War Over Kosovo: Politics and Strategy in A Global Age, Andrew Bacevich and Elliot Cohen
  • Virtual War: Kosovo and Beyond, Michael Ignatieff


    Thursday, October 24

    Dilemmas of Humanitarian Intervention Guest Lecturer: Larry Minear
    Director, Humanitarianism and War Project, Tufts University


  • The Humanitarian Enterprise: Dilemmas and Discoveries, Larry Minear


    Monday, October 28

    Optional - David Rieff at Harvard

    Readings (mandatory)

  • A Bed for the Night: Humanitarianism in Crisis, David Rieff, Chapters: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8

    Tuesday, October 29

    "Considering Law, Power and Intervention" Guest Lecturer: Michael Glennon,
    The Fletcher School, Professor of International Law; author, Limits of Law, Prerogatives of Power: Interventionism After Kosovo; former Legal Counsel, Senate foreign Relations Committee


  • Limits of Law, Prerogatives of Power: Interventionism After Kosovo, Michael Glennon
  • The New Military Humanism: Lessons from Kosovo, Noam Chomsky


    Thursday, October 31

    US Foreign Policy & Great Power Intervention in Peripheral Areas

    Guest Lecturer: Professor Jeffrey Taliaferro
    Department of Political Science, Tufts University


  • Handout from Manuscript by Professor Taliaferro - Balance of Risk: Great Power Intervention in Periphery Chapters 1 5, ,6, and 7


    Tuesday, November 19

    Part II: The Gulf War, Frontline video


    Thursday, November 21

    In-Class Mid Term, 4-8pm

    (all papers turned in at 8pm; those working on laptops must print them out, so bring the necessary disks and drives to the exam)


    Friday, November 22

    In-Class Mid Term for the Program Committee and the East Timor Group

    Tuesday, November 26

    Guest Lecturer: Ian Johnstone, Assistant Professor of International Law, The Fletcher School

    Professional Activities:
    Seven years professional experience at the United Nations, including five as an aide in the Office of the Secretary-General, one in the Department of Peace-keeping Operations, and one in the Office of Legal Affairs; Senior Research Associate, International Peace Academy; Warren Weaver Fellow in International Security, Rockefeller Foundation; Associate in Law, Columbia University; Judicial Clerk, Ontario Court of Appeal; American Society of International Law; Academic Council on the United Nations System; Law Society of Upper Canada

    Recent Publications:
    Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador (co-editor)(1997); Rights and Reconciliation: UN Strategies in El Salvador (1995); Aftermath of the Gulf War: An Assessment of UN Action (1994). Articles include: "UN peacebuilding: consent, coercion and the crisis of state failure," Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Council of International Law, 1999 (forthcoming); "The UN's Role in Transitions from War to Peace: Sovereignty, Consent and the Evolving Normative Climate," Norwegian Institute for Defense Studies Info Paper (1999); "Treaty Interpretation: The Authority of Interpretive Communities," 12 Michigan Journal of International Law 371 (1991).

    Readings (all handouts):

    From Why Peacekeeping Fails, Dennis C. Jett

  • Introduction
  • A Brief History of Peacekeeping
  • Inconclusion: Why Real Reform Might Not be Possible

    From Inquiry reader:

  • Executive Summary: Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations
  • Functional Alternatives to Traditional UN Peacekeeping Operations, Paul F. Diehl
  • From Famine Relief to Humanitarian War: The US and UN Intervention in Somalia, Nicholas J. Wheeler

    From Peacemaking and Peacemaking for the New Century, Olarra Otunnu and Michael Doyle (eds)

  • Discovering the Limits and Potential of Peacekeeping, Michael Doyle
  • Peacemaking and Peacekeeping for the New Century, Boutros Boutros-Ghali
  • Challenges of the New Peacekeeping, Kofi Annan
  • Prospects for a Rapid Response Capability: A Dialogue, Brian Urquhart and Francois Heisbourg

    From Soldiers of Diplomacy: The UN, Peacekeeping and the New World Order

  • In the Glass Tower
  • Cambodia: The Fairies around the Cradle
  • Sabotage and Betrayal in Western Sahara
  • The New Warriors (Somalia)

    From Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador, Michael Doyle, Ian Johnstone, Robert Orr

  • From Peacekeeping to Peacebuilding: Restructuring Military and Police Institutions in El Salvador, David McCormick
  • Rights and Reconciliation in El Salvador, Ian Johnstone

    Tuesday, December 3

    Special Meeting in the morning (tbd)

    Guest Lecturer: Michael Doyle, Edwards S. Sanford Professor of International Affairs, Professor of Politics and International Affairs, and Director of the Center of International Studies, Princeton University. His fields of interest are international relations theory, comparative history, and United Nations peacekeeping. He is the author of Ways of War and Peace, a study of political philosophies of international relations, Empires, and UN Peacekeeping in Cambodia. He co-authored Alternatives to Monetary Disorder, and co-edited Escalation and Intervention, Keeping the Peace, and New Thinking in International Relations. He has been a visiting member of the Institute for Advanced Study and a Social Science Research Council/MacArthur Foundation Fellow.

    Readings (handouts):

    From Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador, Michael Doyle, Ian Johnstone, Robert Orr

  • Holding a Fragile Peace: The Military and Civilian Components of UNTAC, Cheryl Kim and Mark Metrikas
  • Authority and Elections in Cambodia, Michael Doyle

    From The Blue Helmets: A Review of United Nations Peace-keeping

  • UNAVEM II (Angola)
  • UNAMIC (Cambodia)
  • UNTAC (Cambodia)
  • UNASOM I (Somalia)
  • ONUMOZ (Mozambique)
  • UNASOM II (Somalia)
  • UNOMIL (Liberia)


    Guest Lecturer: Neva Goodwin, Co-director, The Global Development and Environment Institute (to be confirmed); editor, Michigan Press series on Evolving Values for a Capitalist World; supervisor, six-volume series Frontier Issues in Economic Thought


    From Mad Money: When Markets Outgrow Government, Susan Strange (in the bookstore)

  • Chapter 1: The Casino Image Gone Mad
  • Chapter 2: Innovations
  • Chapter 6: The Debtors
  • Chapter 7: Finance and Crime
  • Chapter 8: Managing Mad Money -- National Systems
  • Chapter 9: Our International Guardians
  • Chapter 10: So What?

    Thursday, December 5

    Guest Lecturer: William Moomaw, Professor of International Environmental Policy, The Fletcher School

    Professional Activities:
    Director, Tufts Institute of the Environment; Co-Director, Global Development and Environment Institute; Co-Director, Public Disputes Program, Program on Negotiations, Convening Lead Author, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2000; Trustee, Consensus Building Institute and Earthwatch

    Recent Publications:
    People and Their Planet: Searching for Balance, (co-editor) (1999).

    Articles include:
    "The Environment and Economic Transition in the Region," Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (1999); "Renewable Energy in a Carbon Limited World," Advances in Solar Energy (1999); "Are Environmental Kuznets Curves Misleading Us? The Case of CO2 Emissions," Environment and Development Economics (1998); "Life-cycle Global Warming Impact of CFCs and CFC-Substitutes for Refrigeration," Journal of Industrial Ecology (1998); "Going Around the GATT: Private Green Trade Regimes," Praxis Journal of Development Studies (1997); "Adverse Implications of the Montreal Protocol Grace Period for Developing Countries," Journal of International Environmental Affairs (1997); Principal Lead Author for "Industry" and "Industry, Energy and Transportation: Impacts and Adaptation," Climate Change 1995, Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (1996).

    Reading: The Greening of Sovereignty in World Politics (Global Environmental Accord: Strategies for Sustainability and Institutional Innovation) by Karen T. Litfin (Editor)

    Colloquium Members

    MAAROUF AL-DAWALIBI Maarouf Al-dawalibi was born on the 6th of September 1981. He was born in Beirut, Lebanon but grew up in Saudi Arabia his whole life. Maarouf has always been interested in Middle Eastern affairs since he grew up in the area and lived through the civil war in Lebanon and the Gulf war in Saudi Arabia. Since then he has always been interested in world affairs and chose to come to Tufts for that reason.

    ANDREA R. ARAUJO Andrea R. Araujo is a senior double majoring in International Relations and Economics with a Latin American Minor. She was born in Santiago, Chile and lived most of her life in Brasilia, Brazil, providing her with a dual Chilean/Brazilian citizenship. Andrea spent last fall semester abroad in the Tufts Program in Chile. She is fluent in Spanish, Portuguese and English as well as conversational in French. Her academic interests include world conflicts and conflict resolution, Peace and Justice studies as well as Latin American Economics and Politics. She has interned in the World Federalists of New England, in UNESCO working with the book Schools of Peace - and in the UN regional organization, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). At Tufts she has been the co-president of the Tufts Council in International Affairs, attending several Model United Nations conferences at UPENN (UPMUNC) and Montreal (McMUN). Furthermore, she has been the vice-president for the Tufts Brazilian Culture Club, a member of the International Club, and a choreographer for Spirit of Color. Currently she is a member of the Peace and Justice Studies Executive Board and is working with other friends in the creation of an NGO focused in improving public education in Brazil. Her hobbies include dancing, reading, listening to music, poetry, traveling, and playing sports (mainly soccer and volleyball). Upon graduation, Andrea hopes to eventually get a Masters degree and work for a UN organization or NGO focusing mainly on children suffering from impoverished conditions throughout Brazil and improvements that can be made in their basic education.

    SARAH BERGER Ms. Berger is a senior from Ontario, Canada studying international relations. She has worked both in government and non-government sectors in Washington; first at a non-profit called Women for Women and later working for Nydia Velazquez (D, NY) in Congress. She studied abroad last year in Sevilla, Spain and then at St. Catherine s College at Oxford. She spent some time in the summer of 2002 teaching beginners English at an international school in Toronto. Her interests include running, theater, non-fiction reads (though one or two fiction are usually snuck in throughout the year), and photography; some work is displayed and sold at Maghana Gallery in Ontario.

    ROBINA BHASIN Ms. Bhasin is a senior majoring in International Relations with a minor in Latin American Studies. Her Iranian/Indian heritage has provided a strong basis for her interest in International Affairs, particularly in developing countries. This past year she studied abroad in Santiago, Chile and Madrid, Spain. While in Chile she interned with a Chilean NGO focusing on popular education and the effects of globalization on the Chilean poor and working classes. This past summer she began working at the Harvard Program in Refugee Trauma on an oral history project pertaining to Cambodian women refugees, and continues her work there this semester. Ms. Bhasin is fluent in Spanish, proficient in French and orally proficient in Farsi. At Tufts she has enjoyed participation in various community service groups, including the tutoring program, which she coordinated for community elementary and middle school students. Ms. Bhasin has been a Dean's list student every semester and is a member of the National Society of Collegiate Scholars. After graduation she hopes to work and further her education focusing on public policy.

    JOE BODELL I'm currently a Junior majoring in Computer Science and Political Science. I came to Tufts all the way from the Boston suburb of North Reading, MA, where I played varsity basketball and participated in the school drama group. I have been and continue to be a technical intern at the MITRE Corporation, a civilian not-for profit organization devoted to Information Technology development for the Air Force and other US Government agencies. While there, I've worked with and designed advanced web-based visualization tools utilizing the rising tide of XML technologies. I speak semi-fluent Spanish and a smidgen of Hebrew, and play guitar and Warcraft III in my spare time. I m also an avid baseball fan and aspiring sabremetrician, so baseball-related conversation is always welcome!

    ZACHARY BRAIKER This is Zachary Braiker's second year at Tufts, before which he studied Politics, History and Literature at Brandeis University. He continues these pursuits here, where he focuses on an eccentric mix of international law and foreign policy, European intellectual history and Russian Literature. In addition to intellectual pursuits, he enjoys contributing to various forms of media including television, theater, film, and academic journals. He served as President of the television station at Brandeis, and executive producer of many plays and shows. Further interests include Martial Arts, which he has pursued since childhood and creative writing. He has served as a volunteer teacher with AmeriCorps in Dallas, Texas and also represented the March of Dimes on a regional and National level with advocacy and awareness campaigns. He sees EPIIC as the promise of the Tufts experience, and the touchtone of his undergraduate one, nourishing the spirit of the global community in the context of the college one.

    RACHEL BRANDENBURG Rachel Brandenburg, a Washington, DC native, is currently in her second year at Tufts University and is considering pursuing a major in International Relations with a concentration in the Middle East and South Asia. In the past she has run on the Tufts Varsity track and cross country teams, and has been very involved with the Friends of Israel student group on campus, of which she is now the president. She has spent a lot of time in Israel, including recently attending a three week seminar on global terrorism at Tel Aviv University, as well as living, working, and studying in Israel during the second semester of her senior year of high school. She is fluent in Hebrew and has a working knowledge of French. Rachel is looking forward to participating in EPIIC and having the opportunity to both delve deeper into global issues about which she is already interested, and to explore other complex conflicts through multiple wide and different lenses.

    KATHARINE BURNS Kate is a sophomore majoring in IR and Vocal performance at Tufts and the New England Conservatory of Music. She grew up in Detroit, Michigan. She has performed as a singer and a cellist all over the world. She is extremely excited to be participating in EPIIC this year, and would like to point out that Condoleeza Rice started out as a concert pianist.

    ALEXANDER BUSSE Mr. Busse is currently a junior at Tufts University majoring in international relations. He is trilingual as he has lived Johannesburg, South Africa, Geneva Switzerland and Bonn, Germany where he also completed his military service. In Germany he played on the German National Baseball Team for 4 years and participated in many competitive international tournaments in America and Europe. Over the years he has remained in close contact with South Africa as he still has family in Cape Town he visits yearly. As part of the EPIIC colloquium 2001/2002 he traveled back to Johannesburg to conduct first hand research on a development project in Soweto over Thanksgiving break. He spent his past summer in Sri Lanka working with the current practitioner in residence from the Kennedy School of Government, Tim Philips, working on issues of conflict resolution. Mr. Busse is currently learning Spanish as he plans to spend his next semester in Madrid. His career plans are to get involved in the democratization of underdeveloped countries through a multinational institution.

    NICK CHASET Born in Oakland, California to two young lawyers working in the public sector. From the age of five years old, I was educated in a bilingual French/English school system until my graduation in the spring of 2000. In High School, I participated in both student government and varsity athletics. Upon my graduation, I entered the University College of Utrecht, The Netherlands. While in Utrecht, I was able to travel extensively around Europe and was lucky enough to make a group of friends from all over the world. After a year in The Netherlands, I returned to the U.S. to attend Tufts University. In my first year at Tufts, I played soccer for the Tufts Men's Soccer Team. I was also the uphill representative for the International Club. The future awaits.

    HANK COMPTON My name is Hank Compton and I am a senior at Tufts University majoring in Political Science. I graduated from Kecoughtan High School in Hampton, VA in 1992 and spent the next several years travelling throughout the Caribbean Islands and South America. I worked in many different fields during my travels, but spent most of the time working on private yachts and sport fishing charter boats. After returning home in 1995, I began working full time for The Hampton Division of Fire and Rescue as a Fire Fighter/ Paramedic and was employed with the department for over four years. Throughout my employment with the Fire Department I attended classes part time and worked as both a beach lifeguard and charter boat captain. I transferred to Tufts in 2000 and will graduate this spring (2003).

    FRANCES DIXON Frances is currently a freshman International Relations major at Tufts University; and as such, is unable to quite conceive of what she has gotten herself into by joining the EPIIC program. She hails from just outside of Buffalo, New York where she has lived for the past ten years. Her high school career, while mirroring that of many others, is unique in that in Seattle this year, she and her trio won a National Championship in synchronized swimming finals. Frances has also been a ten year volunteer with the Skating Association for the Blind and Handicapped, where she was an assistant teacher last year. Most notable however is Frances' involvement with David's Dinner, a program that her cousins began in 1998 when David O'Brien, an alumnus of the joint degree program through Tuft's Fletcher School and Friedman School, died in India researching the use of food as a political tool. Since that time, Frances has become keenly interested in famine and how nations either attempt to lessen its effects, use food as a political tool or just ignore the dying of their people. Perhaps, as such a starry-eyed freshman, she is naive, but she is very excited to join the EPIIC program and work with the remarkable people in her class.

    LIV EALES Ms. Eales is a senior at Tufts University, majoring in History. She is from Minneapolis, Minnesota, born into a family of four girls. She is returning this semester after spending the last in Chile, where she studied many cultural aspects of Chilean life. After spending a month studying memory within a divided country, she brings back a desire to continue her studies of Latin America and someday pass on what she has learned.

    ELANA EISEN-MARKOWITZ Elana Eisen-Markowitz was born and raised in and around Washington, D.C. She is a first-year liberal arts student at Tufts and plans to major in Political Science or maybe American Studies. At this point she is interested in pursuing a career in political speechwriting but may or may not get bored of that idea within the next few weeks. For the last couple of years, Elana has been writing for various print and online newspapers and has begun (and not gotten very far into) an extensive social research project dealing with issues of gentrification, the Not In My Back Yard syndrome (NIMBY) and low-income/transitional housing in D.C. In the future, she hopes to continue this research on a broader, more international scale and perhaps someday gather real data and make real conclusions.

    LAUREN FEIN Ms. Fein is a sophomore transfer student from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, also a resident of Amherst. She considers herself an Open Minded major (Undeclared) with interests in psychology, political science, and anything not involving mathematics. Ms. Fein s passionate desire to learn how to analyze and create solutions the injustices of the world led her not only to Tufts University, but also to the EPIIC program. Prior to her first year of college, Ms. Fein spent ten months in Israel on an organized program. On her trip, she volunteered on a Kibbutz in the Negev Desert and in the Northern port city of Haifa, and also studied in Jerusalem. Because of Ms. Fein's first-hand experiences of the current Intifada and its effects on the country, she is particularly dedicated to pursuing research on peaceable and fair solutions to the conflict. Besides a passion for peace, Ms. Fein enjoys playing Ultimate Frisbee, making crafty creations, and meeting new people.

    REBECCA FRANK My name is Rebecca Frank. I am a sophomore transfer student. I was born in New York City and raised in Princeton New Jersey. At Tufts I hope to major in history. Before starting school last year I took a year off and worked for City Year Boston. During that year I worked in a school and at an afterschool program in the Boston area. My experiences in City Year made me especially interested in education and community service work. This year I am excited to be a part of EPIIC because the topic is so relevant to many current events and because I am hoping to broaden my own awareness and understanding of what is going on in the world.

    SHAI GRUBER My name is Shai Gruber, I am a freshman, and my main academic interest is the Middle East. I intend to be the one who discovers the just, compassionate solution for the ME conflict the world has been waiting for. In high school in Dayton, Ohio I participated in several independent studies: an intensive investigation of Josephus, a first century C.E. Jewish-Roman historian, an introduction to ancient Greece, and a study of pre-state Israel with a focus on the ideologues who influenced the state's character. For this last study, I submitted for publishing a work contrasting the ideal state formed according to Vladimir Jabotinsky and Judah Magnes' ideals, two major thinkers. I traveled to Israel for the second time in March to participate in the Central Conference of American Rabbis's Jerusalem convention. The convention had a distinct focus on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict with keynote speakers including Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, US Ambassador Daniel Kurtzer, Michael Melchoir, Yossi Beilin, Benny Elon, and Professor Munther S. Dajani, Chair of the Department of Political Science and Diplomacy at Al Quds University, among others. I participated in events with Rabbis For Human Rights, the Interreligious Coordinating Council of Israel, and an IDF security briefing at areas bordering Jerusalem and the Palestinian Authority territory. I love Israel and cannot wait to return. My other interests include soccer, for the past twelve years, and classic rock.

    LAURA GUTIERREZ I'm an Anthropology and Environmental Studies major sophomore here at Tufts. I was born in Colombia and moved the to the US as a child. I have lived in several US states which has led me to enjoy traveling, being outside, camping, and learning about different groups of people. Two years ago I was selected as one of the Finland-US Senate scholars. Within this program I lived with a host family in Finland for three months. We also met with government officials, including the then Finnish ambassador to the US, Jukka Valtasaari, and the President of Finland, Tarja Halonen in Finland and in the US to discuss Finland's role in an ever increasing global world. Then this past summer, I worked in the Catskills as a research assistant studying the hybridization and herbivore interaction of willows. Being fluent in Spanish, I am now hoping to conduct a research project in or near Colombia. My other major concern in life right now is figuring out how I can be outside all of the time.

    NATALIA GUZMAN Born in San Juan, Puerto Rico, Natalia Guzman has had different roles to fill as daughter, sister, friend, student, dancer, traveler, employer, and more. Currently, as student of Economics and International Relations at Tufts University, she finds herself on the search for gaining more knowledge of world issues and exposure to its wonders. A series of events have led her to these growing interests, but the experience of living in France, participating in an International Peace Conference and working with a leading economist in Puerto Rico have defined them even further. As a consequence, she now feels compelled to work for the progress of developing countries and its people.

    ALIA HAMID I was born in New York City on March 1982, the eldest of three daughters. I grew up in New York for the most part but have also lived in Amman and Geneva at different times and have traveled elsewhere in Europe and the Middle East. I am especially interested in the Balkans and the Middle East, particularly on issues concerning children and refugees. I have volunteered at orphanages/children's centers in both regions. I am now a junior at Tufts majoring in IR and Middle Eastern Studies.

    BENJAMIN HARBURG I'm in my first year here at Tufts and considering double majoring in International Relations and Economics. My primary interests, in terms of foreign affairs, are European Unification, The Middle East crisis, South American inequities, and central Asian conflict. I speak Spanish fluently and am currently learning Chinese. I am currently on the crew team and will run track for the jumbos starting this winter. To give you a little background, I am not really from anywhere. Throughout my short 18 year life I have moved seven times to and from places like Barrington, IL, Detroit, MI, Colorado Springs, CO, Cadiz, Spain, Tulsa, OK, and Zurich, Switzerland. However, the place I feel the most at home is Santa Fe, NM. I have a passionate interest in working to better the lives of the people I encounter throughout my transitions. In Europe I did extensive work in Poland and Romania with refugees and individuals in poverty stricken areas. Since moving back to the States I have been focusing my energies on improving the lives of Hispanic Americans in my communities. I helped start a program to teach illiterate individuals to read/write and even help them study for their GED exams so that they can receive high school diplomas. Political activism is also something that interests me greatly. While in Illinois, I worked with a few students to create a group called the Organization of Students for Community Awareness. Our goal was to increase political participation in local elections and in educational funding matters. Most recently, we worked to push a referendum to hire more teachers and build more classrooms for our over-crowded high school. For quite some time I have had the intention of working in the state department or in some facet of international diplomacy. In high school I participated in Model United Nations, Foreign Extemporaneous Speaking and Lincoln Douglas Debate. In the summer of 2000, I studied international law and diplomacy at American University and last summer I partook in the international relations program at Georgetown. I am an avid Chicago Cubs (maybe next year) and Bears fan.

    VICTORIA HARTANTO Born in Surabaya, Indonesia, Victoria Hartanto and her family immigrated to the San Francisco Bay Area when she was 4 years old. She is currently a senior majoring in International Relations and Peace and Justice Studies, recently returned from studying abroad for one year on the Tufts-In-Paris program. She has an academic interest in social movement theory and is an activist in human rights issues, especially concerning capital punishment, East Timor, Latin America, immigrant's rights in California, gay rights and religion, and corporate crimes. She has been active in the Presbyterian Church, serving as a youth advisory delegate to the 1999 General Assembly in Fort Worth, TX. At Tufts University, she is involved with the Coalition for Social Justice and Nonviolence, is a member of the Gospel Choir, co coordinated the Shelters program of the Leonard Carmichael Society, and works as a supervisor at the Campus Center Dining Services. She has interned for CPPAX (Citizens for Participation in Political Action), a progressive political organization in Boston, working on domestic partnership rights in Massachusetts and the Free Burma campaign. Last summer, she worked as an intern for Global Exchange, a San Francisco-based international human rights organization, working on the post-911 anti-war movement.

    CHRISTINE HENDRICKSON My middle name is Marie, and the same is true for my sisters, Lisa Marie and Stacey Marie. Home is northern California. I grew up in a small town just outside of Sacramento. The name of the town is Roseville. I lived there until I was 18, and then I moved to San Francisco where I spent my first year of college at the University of San Francisco. The school is just a few blocks away from Golden Gate Park and Ocean Beach. It was a great year, and it is still a great city. I hope to move back there some day, as I miss the fog and the people. USF, on the other hand, wasn't fitting as a school. I decided to apply to some other universities with hopes of transferring. A sweet friend from high school introduced me to Tufts. I applied and was accepted at the end of the summer. I moved to Boston one month later. I am now in the first semester of my junior year as an English major.

    What do I do with my time? I run. Not because I love it, but because it gives me balance. Running is a time for me to both dream and think. It allows me to be purposeful and poetic at the same time, and conveniently it keeps me in shape. What else? Details. I love them. The small insignificant things that most people don't notice, like the boy across the classroom with two different socks on, or the tension that exists between a couple walking side by side that makes me wonder. I take pictures. Always and whether they're good or not, I take them. I listen to music, and I dance to it. I have a tough time remembering the names of the songs or the people who sing them; I simply enjoy the sound. As for EPIIC, I feel privileged to be a part of this group of people. When I sit in class I am confident that people who will change the world surround me.

    ELLIOT HIRSHON Mr. Hirshon is a sophomore at Tufts University who takes what the world throws him. He has only ever lived in State College, Pennsylvania, but sees EPIIC as an opportunity to challenge his perceptions and open new doors. Undeclared and open minded, Mr. Hirshon is considering a Plan of Study consisting of courses themed around basic human motivations and then applying that knowledge to international relations. Described as a renaissance man in State College Magazine, he played soccer, ran cross-country and was an Assistant Captain and Captain on his Varsity and Midget AA hockey teams. Elliot was part of the moraine mapping and meteorology teams on the Wyoming 2000 International Expedition that presented at the American Meteorological Society's 81st Annual Symposium and he has done research and GIS work at the Penn State's Geosciences department. An avid lover of music, he plays the double bass in the Tufts Symphony Orchestra, which recently toured in Athens and Rhodes and he played in the Pit Orchestra for Into the Woods. I was born to simple gifts and I've always been exposed to music, I don't think I will ever understand its draw, but I don't think I will ever lose it. As a Resident Assistant, he hopes to bring his experience in EPIIC into the Tufts community. I don't know what to expect, or where this will take me, but it's one of those moments that you know will change how you look at the world.

    JOE JAFFE Joseph D. Jaffe joins the EPIIC program during his first year of resumed undergraduate education at Tufts. Especially since Joe began his formal education nine years ago, left college to join the U.S. Army, and has spent several years in the workforce, he is excited to make his return to the classroom within the multidisciplinary forum that is EPIIC. Most recently, Joe was called up to active duty in the Army following the events of September 11th of 2001. He spent several months working in Army intelligence, training for and aiding in anti-terrorism efforts. Prior to serving with the military last year, Joe was employed for several years at the software and web consulting firm AGENCY.COM. There, he earned recognition for being promoted over a period of just under three years from administrative staff to Lead Project Manager for the North American Interactive Television group. While with the ITV group, Joe worked on several projects with AT&T and Cablevision, participated in an extensive training program in the company's Interactive TV lab in Copenhagen, and succeeded in negotiating critical business ventures with Sun Microsystems and Oracle. Prior to working at AGENCY.COM, Joe served for two years as an Army encryption specialist where he was charged with maintaining hardware that was the backbone for secure lines of communication in the field. He worked in this field until late 2000 when he made the transition to the intelligence branch of the Army. Joe was raised in Manhattan, NY and finished high school in Suffolk County, Long Island. These days he lives in Somerville, MA with his girlfriend, Tracey, and their dog, Sammy. He continues to serve as a member of the Army Reserves.

    SARAH KLEVAN Sarah is a senior, majoring in international relations with a geographic concentration on Latin America. She has just come back from a semester studying abroad in Ecuador and a summer working at the Center for Inter-exchange and Solidarity in El Salvador as an English teacher. She spent last summer working as an intern for Oxfam America, helping to develop their fair trade coffee campaign, and training for her first triathlon. While at Tufts, Sarah has been an active member of the Tufts Feminist Alliance through serving as co-chair for the RESPOND benefit concert committee, which works to organize an annual folk concert, proceeds benefiting a local battered women s shelter.

    MARGARET LEBLANC I am a first-year undergraduate student from Yarmouth, Maine. Yarmouth is located next to Freeport, a small village known for its outlet shopping and the main L.L. Bean store. I am a member of a five-person family, with a young brother and an older sister (who is a senior here at Tufts). I also have a golden retriever named Tucker. I attended a small college preparatory independent school in Yarmouth from which I graduated in the Cum Laude Society. I became more interested in international affairs after attending the Harvard Summer School the summer going into my senior year. My classes included War Crimes, Genocide, and Justice (which is what particularly sparked an area of interest) and a comparative literature course, The Epic: Homer, Dante, and Joyce. Due to the new interests from that summer, I took the opportunity of a tradition at my high school of the Senior Speech to research and write my speech about the present situation in Sierra Leone. I am extremely excited about participating in EPIIC and am eager to begin exploring topics that I would have had difficulty learning about on my own.

    ANYA LIGAI I was born in Kazakhstan in 1981 in a family of Korean descent. I grew up in Akademgorodok, a small and cozy scientific town near Novosibirsk, where my parents worked as scientists. I am the oldest of three sisters in my family. We went to a school where children had to learn French intensively from the age of 8 years old. Our grandfather, who was an amazing story-teller, shared his life and culture with us: he told us Korean fairy tales, adventures of his grandfather, and humorous and tragic stories from his own childhood. When I was fifteen, my family and I moved to live in Austin, Texas. In Austin, I discovered interesting things for myself, for example, I was equally surprised to find that I can solve physics problems quite well and that church can be really fun. I went to study abroad in Paris during my junior year at Tufts. I had dreamt of going there since I was a little girl, and at the time it seemed impossible. In Paris I attended the Institute of Political Science. And the following summer I went to Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan to do research on Koreans living in the former Soviet Union. I am currently a senior at Tufts University.

    AARON MARKOWITZ-SHULMAN I was born in Boston, MA. At the age of five my family moved to Midland, Michigan where I spent the next 13 years until graduating from H. H. Dow High School in 2000. In September of 2000, I escaped the monotony of central Michigan by enrolling Young Judea Year Course program in Israel. My trip coincided with the outbreak of the second Intifada. While in Israel, I spent time studying in Jerusalem and volunteering in other places throughout the country. I worked as a teacher in the Democratic School of Arad, a park ranger at the Almog Nature Reserve in Eilat, and raised chickens on a moshav in northern Israel. In June of 2001, I returned to the United States in order to begin my studies at Tufts. Today I am sophomore majoring in international relations with a focus on the Middle East. Eventually I would like to have a career in diplomacy and live in Israel. My primary avocation is music, and I am the clarinetist in the Tufts klezmer ensemble, Jumbo Knish Factory. I also am a campus representative for AIPAC and participate in a variety of Middle East related activities on campus. My previous work experience includes two summers of landscaping, various restaurant positions and dishwashing with Tufts University Dining Services.

    JOHN ROGERS MAXWELL J.R. is a 21-year-old senior from Stonington, CT. Before coming to Tufts he attended the Williams School in New London, CT as part of the class of 1999. He is currently double majoring in International Relations and Economics. He is a varsity skipper on the Tufts sailing team, and was a member of last year's team that placed 2nd at the Collegiate Team Racing North American Championship in Hawaii. J.R. is also the current President of Alpha Tau Omega. This past summer he studied Latin American literature and Peruvian political history in both Lima and Ayacucho, Peru for two months. While in Ayacucho, J.R. also learned first hand about the Shining Path terrorist organization through a month long affiliation with the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. His time with the commission was primarily spent collecting testimonies from terrorist victims in poor towns throughout the district of Ayacucho. After graduation J.R. plans to continue sailing competitively, with the possibility of an Olympic campaign in the future. His eventual career plans include: law school and humanitarian work in underdeveloped nations.

    KARI MCINTYRE I am a freshman interested in majoring in International Relations with a minor in Philosophy. In conjunction with my minor, I will start an Objectivist club to expose many people to Ayn Rand s literature and Philosophy. I am originally from Seattle, Washington, and love the outdoors. Indoors, I enjoy dancing, engaging in poetry slams, fake scatting, skating, and go-karting. In all seriousness, I want to participate in indigenous outreach abroad, in hopes of discovering the truth behind global inequities in contrast to merely learning the facts.

    DAMARIS MEDINA Damaris Medina is a senior majoring in international relations under the thematic cluster of Global Conflict, Cooperation, and Justice. She is from Puerto Rico where she studied in the Caribbean Preparatory School. She entered College majoring in pre-med and has since found her passion for foreign policy in the Middle East and humanitarian issues. She hopes to work in the United Nations and then pursue graduate studies in international law. In Tufts Ms. Medina has been a Latin Peer Leader for incoming freshmen and has devoted much time to volunteer work. Recently she attended the first International Peace for Peace Conference. Her hobbies include travel, soccer, and painting.

    ZAKI RAHEEM Hello everyone. I am presently a Senior who is participating in EPIIC for the first time. I am a Political Science major and an Economics minor with an interest in developing countries. After my study abroad semester to Kenya during my Junior year, I realized that international development was certainly a field of study and work that I was very passionate about. I had internship with a small grassroots NGO in the slums of Nairobi learning about housing and water issues, the role of the UN and the effectiveness of government to meet public needs. This past summer I continued this line of work at a more political and administrative level, as I was fortunate enough to have an internship at the UN Human Settlements Program in NYC; and then join 21 other Tufts students as a delegate at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa. I am excited about this semester as myself and two friends will be mediating an ExCollege course discussing volunteerism, community development, environmental issues and the role of NGOs in Latin America. This fall course is in preparation for our two week long volunteer work trip to Nicaragua in January. After graduation this May, I am hoping to go back to East Africa to continue my internship from my study abroad semester.

    LAURA REED I am a freshman from Sydney, Australia, and I currently live at Metcalf Hall. I am considering the International Relations major here at Tufts, with a focus on the South East Asian region. I completed the International Baccalaureate last year and studied Indonesian as my foreign language. Whilst learning Indonesian, I came into contact with the events surrounding East Timor, as well as the many corruption scandals that rocked the Indonesian government and the religious tensions experienced in both Ambon and West Kalimantan. I became more interested in these affairs and began to follow their progress, which eventually lead to Australian intervention in East Timor. During this time I also became interested in the affairs of other areas in Asia and eventually those from all around the world.

    I joined the EPIIC program because I really feel that I need to know more about what is happening in the world and that the understanding of these affairs is key to my other studies and future career. I am both really daunted and really excited to be in EPIIC and I look forward to meeting everyone else throughout the course.

    LEAH ROGERS Leah Rogers was going to be a psychology major until her experiences during her gap year between high school and college led her to realize that the world is a lot more interesting outside her hometown bubble of suburbia north of Boston. She spent a humbling semester teaching and volunteering in the Navajo reservation in New Mexico, followed by a semester in Costa Rica where she studied Spanish and fell in love with Latin America, and she is now a sophomore majoring in International Relations, with a minor in Latin American Studies. In her spare time she enjoys crafting, traveling (especially road trips) and amateur psychoanalysis. She has no concrete plans for the future, but there will be adventure and spicy food involved. She is a little high- stress and a little bit of a slacker, but she hopes the EPIIC experience will change these bad habits. Her name means wild cow, weary, or ruler, depending on whom you ask, and her blood type is O+.

    EUGENE SCHIFF Eugene Schiff is a senior majoring in history. His interests and concerns include, global inequality, public health, biking, tennis, and Latin America. He spent the 2001-2002 school year studying in the Universidad de Chile in Santiago. Over the (South American) summer break he attended the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, Brasil in February 2002 and also visited Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. In July 2002 he was a volunteer and skills building coordinator in the XIV International AIDS conference in Barcelona, Spain. He is fluent in Spanish and this year is writing a thesis on the privatization of health care in Chile under the Pinochet dictatorship.

    JENNA SIRKIN Jenna Sirkin is currently a junior at Tufts University working towards a double major in International Relations and Spanish, and a minor in Latin American Studies. This past summer she volunteered for nine weeks at an orphanage in the Dominican Republic, where she helped to design and implement an academic and recreational camp program for the orphanage children and the children of the town. The past two years she has been a member of the Tufts Cross-Country team, and throughout the course of high school and college has been very involved in Special Olympics. She is also very interested in art, photography, and jewelry design.

    NAOMI SLEEPER Naomi Sleeper is a senior at Tufts, finishing her double major in Philosophy and Environmental Studies. She has just returned from a semester abroad in Florence, Italy, where she studied Italian architecture, Italian opera and the European Union. Ms. Sleeper has spent a summer working in Washington, D.C. for EarthRights International (ERI), an environmental and human rights NGO, where her research focused on environmental refugees and environmental women s rights, particularly in Burma (Myanmar). Since her experience at ERI, she has been highly involved in the New England Free Burma Coalition (FBC). Most recently, she has interned at the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources, researching microhydropower in Massachusetts, and at the State House, working on environmental issues for Senator Stephen Brewer. Ms. Sleeper plays rugby for the Tufts Women s Rugby Football Club and dances with the Tufts Dance Collective (TDC).

    NATICA SMITH Ms. Smith is a senior who majors in Computer Science and Minors in Political Science. Her family is from Nigeria and she has lived all over the U.S as well as in Nigeria. She is proficient in Ibibio, and speaks English and French. A former Vice President of the Akwa Ibom Youth Association in Middle Tennessee, her current interests include cross-country running, dancing, programming, and reading. Her programming interests led her to the American Association for the Advancement of Science where she interned for the Deputy Director of the Science and Human Rights department, Patrick Ball. Her work consisted of creating a database of records of human rights abuses collected in Kosovo and El Salvador. Statistical analysis was done to prove that there was a pattern and plan to kill and to incriminate Slobadan Milosevic. Patrick presented the results of the work at the International Criminal Court in the fall of 2001 in a deposition at Milosevic's impending trial. Ms. Smith also interned at Akamai Technologies in Cambridge, MA during the summer of 2002 working on Edgescape, a service that maps geographical, network and corporate data to IP addresses. Akamai is a leading provider of outsourced e-business infrastructure, software, and services.

    ROBERT SMULLYAN I am a junior majoring in peace and justice studies with particular emphasis on ethical theory. I grew up in Salisbury, Connecticut, and attended Salisbury Prep School. My junior year in high school, I participated in the Tufts in Talloires program and studied Art History, French, and International Relations. This program served as the main catalyst for my interest in international affairs. The following summer I spent nine weeks traveling through France, Spain, and Italy. I will be doing an internship this coming summer for Search For Common Ground, an international conflict resolution organization based out of Washington, D.C. I have four parents, six siblings, six dogs, one cat and my two favorite things in the world are peanut butter, no preference as to chunky or smooth, and skiing.

    JENNIFER SOKOLER Jennifer Sokoler is excited to be participating in EPIIC as a freshman. She comes to the program with a background in state government that stems from her work at Malkin & Ross, a national lobbying firm with an office in Jennifer's hometown of Albany, New York. Jennifer also explored her interest in politics by participating in H. Carl McCall's campaign for governor. During high school, Jennifer discovered her passion for social action through her work on the executive board of her Jewish Youth Group. Jennifer looks back on youth group as an opportunity to organize and lead teens in a variety of educational programs and service projects including a trip to the Religious Action Center of Reform Judaism in Washington D.C. and a three day social action weekend planned for Jewish youth from across the northeast.

    ASI-YAHOLA SOMBURU Asi-Yahola Somburu is a youth activist from San Francisco, CA. He is an international traveler, avid reader, and an active citizen in his community and the world. In July of 2000 he and a friend organized and funded a trip to Cuba for ten other students through Global Exchange. Asi also produced a film on his experiences in Cuba, and organized several forums and report backs to his community upon his return. He has also traveled to Spain and Japan, all while still in high school. Over the years Asi has distinguished himself with his many academic and athletic achievements. He was the Valedictorian of his high school senior class, and has been the recipient of various awards and scholarships throughout his academic career. Asi also plays the trumpet. He is a vibrant member of the Tufts community, as a DJ and as a leader of the Tufts Black Men's Group. He is currently studying to become a doctor.

    LINDSAY SPIEGELBERG Ms. Spiegelberg is a senior majoring in International Relations with a focus on global conflict, cooperation and justice. She is Chilean-American, born and raised in Texas. She is fluent in Spanish and plans to learn Mandarin. She has two fantastic brothers, one awesome sister, and amazing parents. She has worked in Mexico helping to create a joint Mexican-American small business, conducted research in Cuba on the cultural effects of the US embargo, and spent part of her junior year studying abroad in Chile. Her extra-curricular activities at Tufts include being a former Latino Peer Adviser and member of Tufts women's varsity soccer team. She also has acted as the university student contact for the New England Burma Roundtable and the Boston Free Burma Campaign, as well as the university student representative at the STARC (Student Alliance to Reform Corporations) international conference. She has a passion for soccer, ping-pong, Thai food, National Geographic, crossword puzzles, bunnies, traveling and dabbling in art.

    NIKIAS STEFANAKIS Mr. Stefanakis was born On June 23, 1983 in Athens, Greece, son to Evangeline Harris and Manuel Stefanakis and brother to Rianna and Alexandros. He lived in Athens until he was almost 5 years old. At that point, his family opted to leave the friendly confines of Maroussi (suburb of Athens) and move back to Massachusetts, more specifically, Cambridge, Massachusetts. For the following 5 years, he lived and learned in Cambridge. At age 10, as a result of a unique job opportunity, his family again decided to move, this time to Prague, in the newly formed Czech Republic. For the next year, he lived in another new country; another new school. In 1994, his family returned to Cambridge where he ended elementary schooling. If movement categorized his early life, high school would be a time of stability. He attended Cambridge Rindge and Latin High School for 4 years, and is a proud alumnus. Nikias entered Tufts University in 2001 where he plans to major in International Relations and Economics. Outside of class, Nikias likes to participate in an many different endeavors. He played on the soccer team at Tufts as a freshman and is currently a member of the International Club and the Hellenic Society.

    DANIEL STUCKEY I'm Daniel Stuckey, a freshman. Except for a semester in Jerusalem during high school, I've lived in beautiful New Jersey all of my life. In high school I played soccer and ran track. I was a class officer and the Editorials Editor of my school newspaper. I dabbled in community service whenever possible, including a summer at struggling camps; one for urban kids and another for disabled kids. I plan to be involved in similar activities here at Tufts. I'm enthralled to be so close to Boston.

    J. JEREMY SUEKER Jeremy is the older of two brothers, born and raised in Philadelphia. As a Junior in high school he began his current love affair with international politics and conflict studies. Specifically, following an independent research project evaluating the South African government's response to its AIDS crisis, he is interested in global epidemic and environmental resource management. Through the World Affairs Council of Philadelphia, he helped to direct a Mock International Court of Justice program examining the continuing Turkish presence in Northern Cyprus and its numerous repercussions. The project served to contrast his concern for Middle Eastern politics born of a semester spent in Israel and a strong Jewish heritage. Jeremy also studies classical ballet and plans to continue his training in Boston. He intends to major in International Relations with a possible concentration in public health or epidemiology.

    ROB SWANEKAMP Mr. Swanekamp is a senior majoring in Sociology and International Relations. He is from Allentown, New Jersey, a small town often confused with a larger one by the same name in nearby Pennsylvania. He spent the fall of 2001 studying in Florence, focusing on Italian grammar and linguistics and social issues of contemporary Italy. He has interned at the Cambridge Health Alliance, a non-profit health care provider for residents of the metro-Boston area. He plays the guitar and the piano. After his time at Tufts he hopes to return to Italy and study issues of political and cultural identity among children of binational families.

    REBECCA VALERIN I am a senior majoring in International Relations and minoring in Latin American studies. I was born in Washington, DC and lived in Costa Rica for the first three years of my life. My passion is Latin America and I am interested in development. I studied abroad in Chile for the first semester of my junior year. I am fluent in Spanish and proficient in French. I am a member of the Senior Class Leadership Corps. My career goals are to pursue a masters degree in International Affairs.

    SONIA WEISS-PICK I was born and raised in Mexico City. My family migrated from Germany and Poland after WWII. This was both good and bad. Good in the sense that in my formation, I got a multicultural perspective. Bad because I fear having to eat at either of my grandparents houses. In my opinion Germany and Poland have two of the worst cuisines. I am currently enrolled at Tufts as a freshman. My tentative plans for my future revolve around majoring in Economics and Environmental Science. After university I have a million and one possible routes, but for the moment I shall just figure out how to convert four daily hours of sleep into a sufficient dose of rest.

    AMITI WOLT Amiti Wolt is a freshman member of EPIIC. Amiti recently graduated with honors from South Plantation High School and is a Neubauer Scholar at Tufts University. He is currently pursuing a major in International Relations with plans of personal research and study abroad.

    ZELEKA YERASWORK Zeleka Yeraswork, originally from Addis Ababa Ethiopia is a sophomore majoring in International Relations, with a possible minor in Mass Media and communication. Involvement in several Model United Nations conferences steered her towards an internationally focused odyssey. Mainly devoted to halting the ever growing AIDS pandemic, she has volunteered in the Mother Theresa AIDS orphanage for three years. Was recently a part of the American Friends Service Committee's Africa Peace with Justice Tour on the West Coast of the United States- where she served as a youth delegate who's main focus was educating about the HIV AIDS virus both on the African continent and pertinent to the Diaspora population in the U.S. She is also now a partner in a grass roots organization named Redeem the Generation based in Ethiopia, where their objective is to launch massive educational programs through out the country to educate youth on the severity of the AIDS pandemic. She was involved in writing project proposals for education methods in the three most affected regions in Ethiopia. Her secondary passion is collecting advertisements, watching commercials and taking pictures of the numerous billboards in Time Square- hence the communication (advertising) minor.