EPIIC Archives


  Course Description | Syllabus | Colloquium Members

Course Description

Against the backdrop of the history of Empires - their rise and demise - and the pressures that created them, this year-long colloquium will explore the enduring American search for security and other grand strategies, such as the promotion of democracy and free markets. It will consider the question Is this the era of American Empire? And it will probe the challenges, benefits and consequences of U.S. primacy in the context of globalization. The world is far from the vision of Kant of perpetual peace. How will the ongoing violence and occupation in Iraq end? How will the war on terrorism continue? What are the responsibilities of American power? In the Middle East, specifically with regard to using its influence to help resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict? In Afghanistan, as peace remains elusive and development is stalled? In Africa, as much of the continent suffers from civil war, underdevelopment and struggles with the AIDS epidemic? What new trusteeship or other arrangements, might be created to contend with failed or bankrupt states? Particular attention will also be paid to the current U.S. policies and their contexts, in places that range from Afghanistan to Kosovo to Haiti to Iraq. What will be the future role and leverage of the United Nations and other international organizations in a post-Iraq world? What is the future of NATO and the European Union? The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund? Are they evolving, experiencing vital reconfiguration, or are they shattered alliances? Extreme visions of the United States might place it as either a demonic, hegemonic hyperpower or an indispensable, altruistic nation. Where does it fall on the continuum? How do the international views of the U.S. differ from those of its own self-image? What if the U.S. is perceived as an empire, whether or not it sees itself that way? How might that affect its bilateral and multilateral relationships? From human rights to the environment, from the International Criminal Court to the ban on land mines, from arms control to IMF policies, from peacekeeping to intervention, the U.S. has exerted its power, sometimes in accordance with the international community and sometimes in direct contradiction. Is the U.S. a rogue state or a responsible actor? Has 9/11 instigated a fundamental break in American diplomatic traditions? Will the traditional dynamic of balance of power and the emergence of counter coalitions rise to challenge American preeminence? Where will the future challenges to U.S. power come from? An integrating Europe? Islamic fundamentalism? An emerging China? In the realpolitik of world politics, do all empires face inevitable decline, diminishment or defeat? -top-


Thursday, September 11th

Professor Steve Hirsch (http://ase.tufts.edu/classics/hirsch.html#toppage) - Excerpts on the Neo-Assyrian and Persian Empires (Richard W. Bulliet et al., The Earth and Its Peoples , 2nd ed., Boston/New York 2001, pp. 93-98, 109-110, 114-121, 130-131, 136) (handout) - The Neo-Assyrian Empire: King Sennacherib invades Syria-Palestine, ca. 701 B.C.E. (James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament , 3rd ed., Princeton 1969, pp. 287-288) (handout) - The Persian Empire: Inscriptions of King Darius, ca. 521-486 B.C.E. (Roland G. Kent, Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon , New Haven 1953,pp. 119-120, 131-132, 140, 143-144) (handout) - The Greek historian Herodotus on Persia's first encounters with seafaring Greeks and Scythian nomads, ca. 546-513 B.C.E. (David Grene, trans., Herodotus: The History , Chicago/London 1987, pp. 98-99, 279,311, 316-317, 323-331) (handout) - The Roman-era historian Arrian on Alexander the Great's adoption of Persian ways, ca. 330-323 B.C.E. (Aubrey de Selincourt, trans., Arrian: The Campaigns of Alexander , Harmondsworth 1971, pp. 212-213, 217-223,359-360, 364-366) (handout) ________________

Tuesday, September 16

Professor Bruce Hitchner Chair of the Tufts Classics Dept, director of the Dayton Peace Project; former director of the Center for International Programs at the University of Dayton - A. G. Hopkins (2003), Globalization in World History , chapters 1 (Globalization--An Agenda for Historians) and 2 (The History of Globalization--and The Globalization of History?) (handout) - Hopkins, K. 1980. "Taxes and Trade in the Roman Empire." Journal of Roman Studies 70 (1980) 101-125 (handout) - Mittleman, James. 2000. The Globalization Syndrome: Transformation and Resistance . (Princeton). chapter 1 (handout) - Peter Temin. 2001. A Market Economy in the Early Roman Empire. Journal of Roman Studies , 91: 169-181.(handout) - "The Use and Abuse of Thucydides in International Relations" by Laurie M. Johnson Bagby (handout) ________________

Thursday, September 18th

Shepard Forman (http://www.nyu.edu/pages/cic/staff/staff.html) There will be more readings for Outward Bound: Multilateralism and U.S. Foreign Policy: Ambivalent Engagement , Shepard Forman and Stewart Patrick (book in the book store) ________________

Tuesday, October 28

Guest Lecturer: Peter Kornbluh Senior Analyst, has worked at the Archive since 1986. He currently directs the Archive's Cuba and Chile Documentation Projects. He was co-director of the Iran contra documentation project and director of the Archive's project on U.S. policy toward Nicaragua. From 1990-1999, he taught at Columbia University, as an adjunct assistant professor of international and public affairs. He is the author/editor/co-editor of a number of Archive books: the Archive's first two documents readers: The Cuban Missile Crisis , 1962 and The Iran-Contra Scandal: The Declassified History , both published by the New Press, and Bay of Pigs Declassified: The Secret CIA Report on the Invasion of Cuba (The New Press, 1998). In 2003 he published The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability . He has appeared on national television and radio broadcasts, among them 60 Minutes, The Charlie Rose show, Nightline, CNN, All Things Considered, and Fresh Air with Terri Gross. He has also worked on, and appeared in numerous documentary films, including the Panama Deception , the History Channel's Bay of Pigs Declassified , and The Trials of Henry Kissinger . Readings: -The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability , pp xi 35 (and accompanying documents; pp. 80-115 (and accompanying documents); pp. 457-490 (and accompanying documents) (handout) ________________

Wednesday, October 29

Third Essay Questions distributed, essay will be due Friday, November 7 Discussion Sections Meet ________________

Thursday, October 30

Guest Lecturer: Antonia Chayes Visiting Professor of International Politics and Law, The Fletcher School; Her recent publications: Imagine Coexistence: Restoring Humanity After Violent Ethnic Conflict (co-editor) (2003); Planning for Intervention: International Cooperation in Conflict Management (co-author) (1999); Preventing Conflict in Former Soviet Union (co-editor) (1997); Preventing Conflict in the Post Communist World: Mobilizing International and Regional Organizations (co editor) (1996); The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulating Agreements (co-author) (1995). Professional Activities: Senior Advisor and Vice Chair of Conflict Management Group; Founding member of ENDISPUTE; Chair, Project on Compliance and International Conflict Management at the Program on Negotiation; Adjunct Lecturer, The J.F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; Member, Board of Directors, United Technologies Corporation (1981-2002); Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Manpower, Reserve Affairs and Installations and Under Secretary of the U.S. Air Force (1977-1981); Served on several federal commissions, including the Vice President's White House Aviation Safety and Security Commission, and the Commission on Roles and Missions of the United States Armed Forces. Readings: - US Empire section of Inquiry Reader Class will end early and we will go over to The Fletcher School for Amb. Shattuck's lecture on Freedom on Fire ______________

Friday, October 31

Annotated Bibliographies due for all students writing a research paper this semester and planning on conducting research abroad over winter break. Program Committee Third Essay -- Dream Symposium -- due List of Readings for the Mid-term Exam distributed _______________

Tuesday, November 4

Guest Lecturer: James Lindsay Vice President, Maurice R. Greenberg Chair, Director of Studies, Council on Foreign Relations; Former Director for Global Issues and Multilateral Affairs on the National Security Council; Deputy Director and Senior Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies, Brookings Institution (1999-2003); Consultant to the United States Commission on National Security/21st Century, Hart-Rudman Commission, (2000-2001); Professor of Political Science, University of Iowa (1987-1999); Director, Global Issues and Multilateral Affairs, National Security Council (1996-1997); Publications: America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy (with Ivo H. Daalder, 2003); Agenda for the Nation (co-editor, 2003); P rotecting the American Homeland: One Year On (with others, 2003); Defending America: The Case for Limited National Missile Defense (with Michael E. O'Hanlon, 2001); U.S. Foreign Policy After the Cold War (co-editor, 1997); Congress and the Politics of U.S. Foreign Policy (1994); Congress Resurgent: Foreign and Defense Policy on Capitol Hill (co- editor, 1993); Congress and Nuclear Weapons (1991). Readings: -America Unbound , James Lindsay and Ivo Daalder (bookstore) (there may be an evening lecture with Lindsay and Michael Glennon, professor of international law, The Fletcher School) ________________

Thursday, November 6

Guest Lecturer: Jessica Tuchman Mathews President of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Her career includes posts in the executive and legislative branches of government, in management and research in the nonprofit arena, and in journalism. She was a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations from 1993 to 1997 and served as director of the Council's Washington program. While there, she published her seminal 1997 Foreign Affairs article, "Power Shift," chosen by the editors as one of the most influential in the journal's 75 years. From 1982 to 1993, she was founding vice president and director of research of the World Resources Institute. She served on the editorial board of the Washington Post from 1980 to 1982, covering energy, environment, science, technology, arms control, health, and other issues. From 1977 to 1979, she was director of the Office of Global Issues of the National Security Council, covering nuclear proliferation, conventional arms sales policy, chemical and biological warfare, and human rights. In 1993, she returned to government as deputy to the Undersecretary of State for Global Affairs. Mathews is a director of Somalogic Inc. and a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, The Century Foundation, the Nuclear Threat Initiative, and the Surface Transportation Policy Project (which she co-founded), a national coalition working on domestic transportation issues. She has authored several publications, including "Estranged Partners", Foreign Policy (November December 2001); "Power Shift," Foreign Affairs (January-February 1997); The Earth as Transformed by Human Action (co-author); and Preserving the Global Environment: The Challenge of Shared Leadership (editor). Readings: - "Power Shift," Jessica Tuchman Mathews, Foreign Affairs (handout) - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace newsletters (http://www.ceip.org ) - State of the World and US Foreign Policy sections from the Inquiry Reader 8:00pm -- Dr. Jean Mayer Global Citizenship Award Address on "Iraq, Iran, and North Korea: Dilemmas of Proliferation, Alumnae Lounge" _________________

Friday, November 7

Third Essay due by 5:00pm at the Institute Office _________________

Monday, November 10

Discussion/Review Section may be rescheduled, please check with Yoni __________________

Tuesday, November 11

No Class -- Veteran's Day __________________

Wednesday, November 12

Discussion/Review Sections __________________

Thursday, November 13

In class, short answer mid term exam _________________

Tuesday, November 18

Guest Lecturer: Clyde Prestowitz Clyde Prestowitz is founder and President of the Economic Strategy Institute. Prior to founding ESI, Mr. Prestowitz served as counselor to the Secretary of Commerce in the Reagan Administration. There, he led many U.S. trade and investment negotiations with Japan, China, Latin America, and Europe. Before joining the Commerce Department, he was a senior businessman in the United States, Europe, Japan, and throughout Asia and Latin America. He has served as vice chairman of the President's Committee on Trade and Investment in the Pacific and sits on the board of the US Member Committee of PBEC. Clyde Prestowitz regularly writes for leading publications, including the New York Times ,Washington Post , and Foreign Affairs . He is the author of the best-selling book on U.S.-Japan relations, Trading Places , and co-author and editor of several other books on international trade and business strategy including Asia After the Miracle ;Powernomics ;Bit by Bit ; and The New North American Trade Order . His latest book, Rogue Nation, on the United States' disconnect from the rest of the world, was published in May 2003. Readings: -Rogue Nation , Clyde Prestowitz (bookstore) (there may be an evening program) __________________

Thursday, November 20

Guest Lecturer: Malik Mufti Associate Professor of Political Science at Tufts, Professor Mufti teaches courses on international relations as well as the politics of the Middle East. He is the author of Sovereign Creations: Pan-Arabism and Political Order in Syria and Iraq, as well as journal articles and book chapters on the domestic and foreign policies of Jordan, Egypt, Israel, and Turkey. His latest publications are: "A King's Art: Dynastic Ambition and State Interest in Hussein's Jordan" (forthcoming in Diplomacy and Statecraft ), and "From Swamp to Backyard: The Middle East in Turkish Foreign Policy" (forthcoming in The Middle East Enters the 21st Century , edited by Robert O. Freedman). He is currently working on two projects: a book on Turkish strategic culture and an investigation of war in the thought of medieval Islamic political philosophers. Readings: - US and the Middle East section of Inquiry Reader - "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America: September 2002" ( http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.pdf ) - "Changing Minds, Winning Peace" ( http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/24882.pdf __________________

Tuesday, November 25

(we are expecting YOU to be in class this day) TBD __________________

Thursday, November 27

No class -- Thanksgiving __________________

Tuesday, December 2

Guest Lecturer: John Hoberman A European cultural and intellectual historian with special interests in Sportwissenschaft and the history of ideas about race. His books are Sport and Political Ideology (1984), The Olympic Crisis: Sport, Politics, and the Moral Order (1986), Mortal Engines: The Science of Performance and the Dehumanization of Sport (1992), and Darwin's Athletes: How Sport Has Damaged Black America and Preserved the Myth of Race (1997). He has taught courses on sport and politics at Harvard University, the University of Chicago, and the University of Texas at Austin, where he is Professor of Germanic Languages with a specialty in Scandinavian studies, including Norwegian language instruction. Readings: TBD _________________

Thursday, December 4

Guest Lecturer: William Moomaw (to be confirmed) Professor of International Environmental Policy, The Fletcher School Recent Publications: Transboundary Environmental Negotiation (co-editor) (2002); People and Their Planet: Searching for Balance , (co-editor) (1999). Articles include: "Aligning Values for Effective Sustainability Planning," Planning for Higher Education (2003); "Energy, Industry and Nitrogen: Strategies for Reducing Reactive Nitrogen Emissions," Ambio (2002); "Expanding the Concept of Environment Management Systems," Regulating From the Inside (2001); "The Environment and Economic Transition in the Region," Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (1999); "Renewable Energy in a Carbon Limited World," Advances in Solar Energy (1999); "Going Around the GATT: Private Green Trade Regimes," Praxis Journal of Development Studies (1997); "Adverse Implications of the Montreal Protocol Grace Period for Developing Countries," Journal of International Environmental Affairs (1997); Principal Lead Author for "Industry" and "Industry, Energy and Transportation: Impacts and Adaptation," Climate Change 1995, Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (1996). Professional Activities: Senior Director, Tufts Institute of the Environment; Co Director, Global Development and Environment Institute; Co-Director, Public Disputes Program, Program on Negotiations; Convening Lead Author, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2001; Board of Directors, Consensus Building Institute; Science Advisory Committee, Earthwatch; Lead author, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2003. Readings: TBD _________________

Thursday, December 18

Short answer final exam, 9:00am, room TBA -top-

Colloquium Members

A sophomore here at Tufts, she was born and raised on the South Side of Chicago (Cubs fans got nothing on us!) to two liberal attorneys, where she attended the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools for 13 years. She is planning on majoring in International Relations and Spanish, with a possible minor in fine arts. She did Model UN throughout high school which really ignited her interest in, and almost obsession with, the realities of the world in which we live. She was also heavily into theater (acting all four years and designing costumes) and working with children. She was a mentor at the Cabrini Green Housing Projects Youth Center in Chicago for three years, and at Tufts, she has combined those interests as a member of the Travelling Treasure Trunk (Tufts only children's theater group). She has also studied flute for 9 years, spending one summer in Europe with an orchestra, and she loves doing photography. This summer, along with interning at a legal aide clinic and with a city council member, she volunteered with an organization that provides immigration services to refugees from El Salvador and Nicaragua, which has steered her career-path interests towards examining the politics and social structures of Latin America.

Although she is a San Francisco native and a Northern California girl at heart, Laura Arriaza is in truth, a citizen of the world. Holding Guatemalan and US passports, she has lived and worked in Chile, Spain, Belgium and France with family and independently. As a third year Political Science major at Tufts University, Laura is excited about the modern movement toward international justice and accountability as exemplified by the indictment of various high-profile human rights abusers and the creation of the International Criminal Court. Laura believes that there is a key connection between human rights, international justice and criminal law and hopes to someday, some way, work in an environment where she can combine these passions (perhaps as special prosecutor for the ICC!). She also loves salsa, merengue and cumbia dancing, and wherever she goes she manages to find a place with a beat.

Mauricio ("Mau") is currently a sophomore at Tufts majoring in International Relations. He was born and has lived his entire life in beautiful Costa Rica and is very proud to be a citizen of one of the few countries in the world without a military. Mauricio attended Lincoln School, a bilingual elementary and secondary school in Costa Rica, where he learned English and spent 15 wonderful years. During high school, he was member of the Community Service and Ecology Clubs, a soloist in the choir, President of the Student Government, and Under Secretary-General of two Model United Nations Conferences. He also helped found a campus chapter of Habitat for Humanity and traveled with HFH to El Salvador to help build houses after the 2001 earthquakes. This past summer, he was the Project Coordinator for an international 150-member Habitat for Humanity Leadership Conference held in Costa Rica. At Tufts, Mauricio is an active member of the International Club, the Catholic Community at Tufts, and he is a University College of Citizenship and Public Service (UCCPS) Scholar. Mauricio enjoys dancing, volunteering, sea-kayaking, and spending time with his family and friends. In the future, Mauricio would like to return to Costa Rica with the knowledge and skills to make a positive difference in his country, and he is confident that EPIIC will furnish him with the tools to do so.

Vera was born in Russia, and its memory is one constant within a multitude of interests which occasionally (and not often enough) burst into passion. These others include movement; travel; people in need, particularly those that so easily could not be in need; trees, plants, nature - preventing their destruction as well as the idea of living close to the land; art and especially photographs; and culture. As a first-year student, she wants to solidify, expand, and act on them.

Hussainatu is a senior double majoring in International Relations and German. She was born in Limbe, Cameroon and lived most of her life in Baltimore, Maryland. Hussa, as she likes to be called, spent last year abroad in the Tufts Program in T¸bingen, Germany. She speaks conversational German and English, and is interested in learning Spanish. Her interests include world conflicts and conflict resolution. She has interned at The German-American Institute in T¸bingen, Germany, doing research on social, economic, and political issues that affect Germany and the US relationship and interaction. She has also interned at the NAACP in Stuttgart, Germany, where she assisted the President of the chapter with projects that educated Blacks in Germany about their legal rights, as well as supplying academic and work-related resources for the Black community in the Stuttgart area. At Tufts she has been the Political Chair of the Tufts' Pan-African Alliance (PAA), Underclassmen Representative for the Tufts' African Student Organization (ASO), and Co-Cross Cultural Events Coordinator for PAA, ASO and the Hillel Center. Furthermore, she has been a member of the International Club, Spirit of Color, and a tutor and mentor for Somerville High students through the Nia program at Tufts. Her hobbies include dancing, reading, listening to music, traveling, and running. Upon graduation, Hussa hopes to eventually get a Masters degree and work for a UN organization or NGO focusing mainly on international development in West Africa and Southeast Asia, as well as go to law school to study international law.

Lisa is a senior majoring in Biomedical Engineering, Community Health, and French, and is thrilled to be a part of EPIIC this year. When she grows up she will go to medical school; until then, she plans on helping resolve health disparities and human rights violations in Cuba and/or Northern Africa. Her international family has encouraged her to study foreign languages, such as French, Spanish, and Italian, and to always aspire to make a difference in the world, which one cannot do without travel experience. Though a native of Los Angeles, California, Lisa has traveled throughout Europe and South America and plans to extend her experience to Cuba, Morocco, and other African countries. Her academic and professional fields of interest are vast, including AIDS prevention and education and human rights, and she hopes to pursue her passions through a career in public health and medicine. Lisa is also an active member of Spirit of Color Performing Arts Troupe and the Leonard Carmichael Society, and in her spare time, she tutors Spanish and French.

Allison is in her second year at Tufts as an International Relations major. When not at Tufts she lives in Albany, New York where you can find her rowing on the Mohawk River or bounding through the Adirondack Mountains. She is on the board of the Tufts Feminist Alliance, a member of Varsity Women's Crew, and a member of the Mountain Club exec-board. She was immediately charmed by EPIIC and looks forward to changing the way she views the world and her place in it.

Jason is a senior at Tufts studying History and Spanish, with a focus on Latin American history and culture. He was born and raised in San Diego County. He spent the fall of his junior year in Quito, Ecuador, studying the literature and history of the region, as well as Quichua, the indigenous language. At Tufts, Jason is the Loj Director on the Tufts Mountain Club Exec Board, has participated in the Tufts Wilderness Orientation all four years, and has worked for dining services since freshman year. In his own time he tries to run and lift weights as much as possible. The kind of people and issues he will be exposed to in EPIIC he hopes to work with for years to come.

Justin is a sophomore at Tufts majoring in International Relations and Biotechnology. He was born and grew up in Miami, Florida where he spent his first 18 years immersed in the dual heritage of the city, which reflects his own split American and Hispanic backgrounds. He hopes this duality will serve him well as the EPIIC class explores America's role in the world from both an American and international perspective. He is a proficient Spanish-speaker and avid college football fan who plays water polo in his free time. His academic interests center around the interplay of public or foreign policy and global biotech research, innovation, and industry. He has traveled in Europe and in the Caribbean region and has a general fascination with new places and experiences. Rather than list any accomplishments, he would like to dedicate his efforts in EPIIC to the memory of his grandmother, whose care was his primary concern this past summer.

Sebastian is a first-year liberal arts student at Tufts. He is unsure about what he would like to major in but is leaning at the moment toward International Relations. Sebastian plays the piano and loves yoga and playing ultimate Frisbee. He is also a photographer for the Tufts Daily and enjoys working in the dark room on black and white pictures. Sebastian was born in Colombia in 1984 and attended Colegio Nueva Granada, the American school in Bogota. At the age of sixteen, Sebastian moved to New Jersey to attend The Lawrenceville School, a boarding school located in the vicinity of Princeton and Trenton. At Lawrenceville, Sebastian became involved with numerous student organizations and there joined the leadership of Amnesty International, The Jewish Student Organization and The Lawrenceville Environmental Club. During his years at boarding school, he became interested in various aspects of social politics, international relations and justice. These interests and others brought him to Tufts and to the EPIIC program in particular.

Tiffany is a sophomore at Tufts University, which means that this year she has to declare a major and figure out what she wants to do with the rest of her life. As of right now, she hasn't even figured out what she wants to do tomorrow. A Chinese fortune teller once said that she'd make a good lawyer. To date, Tiffany has unwaveringly pursued the arts of writing, drawing and debating. She has also been a violinist and a pianist for 15 years and has traveled the world with multiple orchestras, once managing to lose her passport in France. Though born in Boston, her home is in Rochester, NY, where she spent the past summer interning at the Economic Development Department of City Hall. It is a strong conviction of hers that Rochester would not survive without Wegmans. Tiffany plays tennis and ultimate frisbee, and once went canoeing for four breathtaking days in the Algonquin Provincial Park. She is of Taiwanese descent and supports the Democratic Progressive Party. Her name is the medieval form of the Greek name "Theophania," which means "appearance of God." She has no idea what her blood type is, but seeks to find out. When no one else is around, she likes to dance and sing at the top of her lungs.

Matan was born in Jerusalem, Israel in 1983 and has been living in the Boston area since 1992. Matan is a concert cellist and has performed throughout North America, Central and South America, and Israel. He has won numerous awards and participated in master classes with some of the world's foremost musicians. Matan graduated cum laude with honor from the Walnut Hill School. Along with a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science at Tufts, Matan is pursuing a Bachelor of Music degree from the New England Conservatory as a student of Paul Katz. At Tufts, Matan has co-found the Middle Eastern Student Society (MESS) and is one of the founding members of the New Initiative for Middle East Peace (NIMEP), a student think tank and cultural advocacy initiative affiliated with the Institute for Global Leadership at Tufts. In 2002, Matan was named a University College of Citizenship and Public Service Scholar at Tufts.

Julia is a sophomore studying international relations and Spanish here at Tufts. She was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota (yay Midwest!) in 1983. Julia travels frequently, but spent her summer in Minneapolis teaching photography and other art media at an inner-city school. Last summer, she was an intern in the late Senator Wellstone's office. Julia's passion for foreign affairs and human rights began after her first trip to Cuba in 2000. Since then, she has developed a passion for Latin America. She plans to spend junior year abroad in Madrid. After Tufts, Julia hopes to pursue an advanced degree in international relations and eventually to work for an NGO such as Human Rights Watch or Amnesty International.

Boryana is from Sofia, Bulgaria. She is currently double majoring in International Relations and Economics at Tufts University. Her interests in business and her international background have formed her great passion for international management and international law. Boryana's future plans are to attend graduate school and receive a degree in both Business and Law. Then, she would like to blend them together in pursuing a career in corporate law. She is very ambitious and enthusiastic about what she does and what she wants to achieve. Working on campus at the Institute of Global Leadership and the Political Science Department enhanced her freshman-year experience. Now, in her sophomore year, she is continuing to work for the Political Science Department and also for the Off Campus Housing Resource Center at Tufts. She is also part of the Tufts Ballroom Dancing team, so if you like to dance...

Rodrigo was born in Mexico City in 1981, where he lived until he came to the United States in 1996. He has lived and studied in Massachusetts and Texas....and he has yet to find a state with a tolerable climate. Rodrigo is currently pursuing a double major in International Relations and Economics in defiance of the current academic trends at Tufts University. He has a keen interest in all things political, avidly following the political scenes of both Mexico and the United States to a sometimes fanatical degree. Sound intellectual exchange and disciplined reasoning give way to reckless passion when it comes to debating soccer, movies and women, three of his greatest loves. Rodrigo is fascinated by the prospect of joining the EPIIC community and looks forward to opening up his sometimes stubborn mind to new ideas.

Matt grew up in Orlando, where he spent his childhood soaking in the warm sun and sitting in hot tubs. Now as a junior at Tufts, Matt is studying economics and playing rugby on the side. When he grows up, Matt wants be a well-fed social documentary photographer, as is he is interested in the power of photography to bring about social change and expose injustice. He especially likes the words of James Nachtwey, arguably the greatest war photographer of this generation, talking about this role in awakening people: "If I can upset people, if I can ruin their day, then I have done my job."

Rin (who's full name in anagram form is "drinker giver ideal"--- hmmmm) is a current senior, majoring in International Relations and Peace and Justice Studies. She is Canadian and, just for the record, she was weaned off the "eh" once uprooted to Ohio, so don't ask. Her junior year was spent abroad, searching for something she never found. For a change of scenery, she spent her summer in her hometown of Montreal working for a refugee and immigration lawyer. She loves controversy, hates stale bread, misnomers, and the word "moist," and hopes, one day, to mold these characteristics into the perfect career. Ooh- and did we mention that she is the music director for the Jackson Jills? No...no we did not... (Finished!)

John is a senior majoring in international relations and German studies. He is from the Boston seacoast suburb of Marblehead, Massachusetts, where he lived his entire life before moving a whole 30 minutes away to attend Tufts. John studied abroad in the small southwestern German city of T¸bingen during his junior year and traveled fairly extensively throughout Western Europe. His academic interests in international relations include European integration and its implications for inter European and transatlantic relations as well as development in Africa. John also follows politics in the American arena quite avidly and had the opportunity to intern in Senator Edward Kennedy's Boston office working on constituent immigration issues. He has played the oboe for many years and has been an active member of the Tufts Symphony Orchestra, acting as President his sophomore year. In keeping with his interest in protecting and furthering the human and civil rights of minorities in the United States, John will act this year as chair of the 7th Safe Colleges Conference, an annual event at Tufts which addresses the unique challenges and interests of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) community on college campuses in the US. John has been involved with the conference, which brings hundreds of college students and administrators from all over New England to Tufts every year, since his freshman year. Some of his other interests include music, reading, eating, and hanging out. And no, he has no idea what he is doing after he graduates but is open to suggestions.

Joanna is a senior studying International Relations. She knows EPIIC will be a challenge, but she is fortunate enough to have two supportive families: one in a house outside of Chicago, Illinois (consisting of parents, a sister, and two cats) and one in a compound in Bamako, Mali (consisting of parents, two little brothers, and over thirty relatives aged 2-75.) While she is particularly committed to issues of gender, economic growth, and law in West Africa, she looks forward to studying global events and affairs from a multi-regional perspective. She grew into herself during six summers in the Berkshires of Massachusetts and has had meaningful experiences in Israel, El Salvador, Mali and France. She owes her happiness at Tufts to a group of sweet, funny friends and a roommate who always listened.

Trevanna is a sophomore at Tufts who is majoring in International Relations and French. Having spent her childhood in rural Maine as the daughter of two United Methodist clergy, she has acquired a true New England penchant for independence, dry wit and arduous winters, and hence, she is thrilled to be part of this year's EPIIC colloquium. Trevanna is passionate about women's' rights and the plight of many African nations and plans to spend her junior year studying and researching in Senegal. Her ancestral roots lie in Cornwall, England, and in Cornish, Trevanna means 'of the Renaissance'.

Elizabeth is a junior double majoring in International Relations and Middle Eastern Studies. She was born in Kuwait but has since spent most of her life in Old Saybrook, Connecticut. Her mixed Palestinian-American heritage has given her an interest in international affairs, and as such she enjoys traveling and experiencing different cultures. She spent three consecutive summers in southern France fine tuning her French and is currently learning Arabic at Tufts University. She is a member of the Tufts Varsity Sailing Team and hopes to compete in Nationals in the spring of 2004.

Kristian is entering his senior year at Tufts University, pursuing studies in International Relations and Biotechnology. He was reared with his younger brother Andreas in Minneapolis, Minnesota by his two loving parents. He graduated from Mounds Park Academy, where he played the drum set in a jazz band, captained a basketball team, and participated in Policy Debate. While at Tufts, he has worked for the Tufts Daily as a web manager, researched at a Ligament Engineering Laboratory, and been awarded the Montel Prize for Entrepreneurial Leadership for starting a student painting company. This summer, he interned at La Foundacion Juan March in Madrid, conducting research on democracies. This year he is completing a senior honors thesis on microfinance for development while enrolled in the EPIIC program.

Ayesha is a sophomore at Tufts and is currently debating between a major in History or International Relations. Although she was born and raised in Rochester, New York, Ayesha takes pride in her Pakistani heritage. At Tufts she is a violinist, a member of Amnesty International and a member of the Peace and Justice Studies Board. As she plans to minor in Studio Art, Ayesha hopes to utilize EPIIC to tie together her interests and to pursue research in South Asia or the Middle East.

Claudine, a sophomore at Tufts, is currently an International Relations major. She is planning to focus her studies on the Eastern European region of the Balkans. Born and raised in the Bronx, NY, Claudine spent many summers living with her family in Bulgaria. Now, she hopes to study the rebuilding of infrastructure in that region as a way to increase economic growth and activity. Growing up in a family of former circus acrobats, Claudine was always very involved with gymnastics. She now has a lot of fun practicing with Turbo, the Tufts breakdancing team, and hopes to launch a gymnastics club by the end of the semester. EPIIC will be a way for Claudine to focus her passion for the Balkans as well as increase her understanding of how the US will play a significant role in the international arrangements in the years to come.

Michael is twenty years old and a sophomore at Tufts. His ethnic descent is Irish- American and Jewish-Turkish. He was born in Paris but lived his whole life in Geneva, Switzerland. He has triple citizenship (French/Swiss/US); he speaks English and French currently and can hold a decent conversation in German (he plans on perfecting his German and learning Spanish in the next few years). Unlike most of the students in EPIIC, he is in the school of engineering; where his majors are Engineering-Physics and Math. He is not sure what his plans are for the near future, but he hopes EPIIC will help him form them.

Will is presently a sophomore International Relations major from San Antonio, TX. He is also an AFROTC Cadet with Detachment 365 at MIT, and he hopes to pursue a career in the U.S. Air Force as a pilot. His interests include history, geopolitical security studies and the use of aerospace power throughout the world. His interests have brought him to study in depth European history and European integration. Will has always been interested in Cold War history and the Former Soviet Union and the Balkans. This past summer he worked as an intern with Strategic Forecasting LLC (STRATFOR) and as a researcher with AETC/HO at Randolph AFB, TX. Throughout high school, he was very active with Boy Scouts, Model United Nations, and his school's Solar Car Team, which he helped found.

Erica is a senior majoring in International Relations. She was born to a Cuban Irish mother and a Jewish-American father, and was raised in Brooklyn, New York until she was 8, when her parents dragged her against her will to Millburn, New Jersey. Wanting to be close to home (but not too close), she decided to go to Tufts University and has been having the time of her life here. She studied abroad in Madrid, Spain, where she continued learning Spanish and travelled all over Europe. She thoroughly enjoys learning different languages and is currently studying Arabic and French, as well as perfecting her Spanish skills. She hopes to join the Peace Corps post-Tufts, and eventually go on to work in the Foreign Service. At least that's the plan...

Brian lives in a suburb of Denver with his parents and younger brother. He is currently a sophomore at Tufts and is double majoring in International Relations and Middle Eastern Studies. He is a news editor for the Tufts Daily, and he worked last summer at the Intermountain Jewish News, writing news and features articles and obituaries. He does not have any interest in being a journalist for a living - he would much rather be the guy than be the guy who writes about the guy. He considers himself an above-average ping-pong player and a very-below-average soccer player, but he is always trying to improve in both. He loves watching movies, especially by Woody Allen, and he likes pretty much all kinds of music, from Bob Dylan to Blackalicious. After college, he would like to continue being around only people his own age and having virtually no real responsibilities, and he figures grad school is probably the best place to accomplish those goals. Any night that he is not at the Daily office or doing EPIIC homework, he is usually at Pizzeria Regina in the North End. Mmm.

Sabrina is of Argentinean descent, although for some reason her father, a physician, decided to move to Boca Raton, Fl, where she grew up. What can she say about herself.....her passions in life are quite simple and she hopes to always keep them that way. She loves to cook with and for her friends, spends hours eating asado with her family and friends and drinking quilmes. She is fascinated by people, and she thinks that the most exciting part about living in the States is the ability to go anywhere and just watch--people from all over the world! She is inspired by the visual arts, the creativity to surpass what we experience daily, into something sublime, and by her best friend Gabriel. Her short-term goals are to return to Senegal, a place that taught her immense lessons on life. Inshallah.

Phil Martin, a sophomore, is a Political Science major from Andover, Massachusetts. He has been interested in politics and international affairs since a young age and hopes that EPIIC will provide him with much insight and wonderful opportunities in this field. In 2000, Phil spent 5 weeks in Israel just prior to the outbreak of the Intifadah, further sparking his interest in world affairs. Phil is very active at Tufts, participating in the Tufts Mountain Bike Club, writing viewpoints for the Tufts Daily, writing/editing for Radix, and was a leading member of TCOWI (Tufts Coalition Opposed to War on Iraq) last year. Phil spent this past summer interning for a law firm specializing in criminal defense.

Born in Mexico and raised in Texas, Ana is now a junior double majoring in Community Health and International Relations. Her interests lie in global health, international law, forced migration and refugees. This past summer she studied abroad in France and toured some of Europe, making stops at many of the EU and UN institutions including the WHO, WTO and the ICRC. She is fluent in Spanish and proficient in French. At Tufts she has enjoyed being a resident assistant to returning and freshman students, serving on the Women's Board, and tutoring elementary school children through the Tufts Literacy Corps. Last year she co chaired the Baha'i Association of Tufts, and facilitated a non-credit community course entitled "Reflections on the Life of the Spirit". Her hobbies include mountain biking, swimming, and long distance running. She also enjoys reading and learning more about different religions, cultures and peoples. This year she hopes to engage the Tufts Community in thinking about violence in society and hopes to re establish the club formerly known as the Tufts Collective for Men Against Violence.

Tsega Menelik is a junior at Tufts with a major in International Relations and a minor in Economics. She was born in Holland to parents of Ethiopian and Eritrean descent. However, she has lived most of her life in Bangor, Maine with her parents and younger brother, Isaac. Since the age of 17 she spent her summers working for Maine People's Alliance, the state's largest non-profit citizen action group. She began there as a field canvasser, garnering citizen support for health care and environmental issues, and she ended her final summer as Canvass Director, recruiting and hiring staff as well as strategizing long-term fund raising goals. She is compelled by social issues and very interested in economic development policy. She is a Tufts Balfour Scholar and proficient in French and enjoys playing piano and learning guitar.

Sarah is a 19 year old freshman this year and hails from the state of Kentucky. Growing up in a military family, she has resided throughout the United States, including South Texas and Chicago, Illinois. During her high school career, she was active in Speech and Debate and participated this past summer in the National Forensic League Finals for Original Oratory with a speech on active citizenship. As the chairwoman of her high school's equity committee, she was deeply involved in initiating diversity education among the student body to promote tolerance and understanding of different cultures. She plans on majoring in International Relations and hopes to continue her work with diversity education through EPIIC. She also loves crossword puzzles and crochet!

Shaunik is a senior majoring in International Relations with a focus on Global Conflict, Cooperation and Justice, and a minor in Economics. Born in Bombay, India, raised in New Jersey, and having just returned from a year abroad at The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), his primary interest lies in exploring the capacity of public policy to pursue development. Before graduating from the International Studies Learning Center at Freehold Township High School, he had pursued a number of domestic public service internships, most notably in the district office of Rep. Rush Holt (D-NJ) and on the campaigns for Sen. Jon Corzine (D-NJ) and NJ Governor Jim McGreevey. Since coming to Tufts, he has worked in Washington, DC for Rep. Frank Pallone (D-NJ) and Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA), and in New York City in the Investment Policy and Asset Allocation Department of the New York Life Insurance Company. His domestic public policy background also entails assisting in research this past summer on environmental sustainability in urban policy in U.S. cities. He hopes to utilize EPIIC to combine these professional experiences and his academic coursework at the LSE to examine the U.S.' role in addressing the development needs of global populations. When not actively part of the EPIIC family, Shaunik is a Resident Assistant (RA) on campus and a proud member of the Tufts Bhangra Team, a nationally competitive Indian dance troupe.

Anura is a sophomore from Westfield, NJ. She is majoring in Chemical Engineering and Biotech Engineering. Learning has been the driving force in her life, and she has spent the past few years teaching and working with children of all ages (except for the past summer when she made makeup for one of the largest brands). She is counting on EPIIC to not only teach her in the traditional sense but also to teach her how to think in new ways.

Guergana is a sophomore at Tufts University studying International Relations. She currently calls Tampa, Florida home, but is originally from Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Having spent the earlier part of her life in Eastern Europe, she feels naturally drawn to the area. Her eventual career interest is working for the US Department of State as a Foreign Service officer. But the term eventual is very purposely selected to describe this pursuit, for life is too full of choices. She devoted part of her high school career to Speech and Debate and enjoys volunteer work, forever crediting her high school Key Club experience for that. She has tutored students in Spanish, helped at runaway shelters, and worked with kids with Cerebral Palsy. In her spare time, she enjoys dancing and laughing with friends. At a time in her life when the world seems to be her canvas, she could not resist the temptation of joining EPIIC and being constantly challenged, astonished, and motivated by the people that surround her.

Negar Razavi is a sophomore studying Peace and Justice Studies and in the process of finding a second major. She was born in Teheran, Iran, but lived most of her life in the suburbs of Philadelphia. She has worked with various community service, peace and civil liberties organizations. Her main area of concern is the Middle East, where she would like to one day see the development of democratic governments that will have respect for the rights of their citizens. She loves teaching, going to see live music, dancing, and skiing.

Justin was born on March 27, 1985 in St. Claire's Hospital in Denville, New Jersey. His father, Reynold, was born in Haiti and raised in Jamaica and later immigrated to the United States at the age of eighteen. His mother, Elaine, was born and raised in the Bronx, New York. He also has a bright sixteen year old brother, Gabe. Justin attended Seton Hall Preparatory School in West Orange, New Jersey. At Seton Hall, he balanced his time between ice hockey and debate. In the summer, Justin attended the W.E.B. DuBois Scholars Institute at Princeton University, where he studied the history of African Americans and the life of DuBois. Justin is now a freshman at Tufts. He is passionate about ideas, debate, and human rights. In his life, he has traveled extensively through Europe, Latin America, and the United States. In the future, he intends to fight for human rights in Latin America and South Africa. Justin is an avid listener of reggae music and enjoys rugby and watching documentaries.

Genna is a senior at Tufts University majoring in American Studies. She is Managing Editor of Tufts' student literary magazine Outbreath. Genna is returning to Tufts after spending the spring semester of her junior year in Madrid, Spain. Her transition back into Bostonian life was eased by her summer spent in Beantown working at the non-profit organization Cultural Survival. The work produced in Cultural Survival's modest five-room office, just off Central Square, is responsible for assisting indigenous groups around the world in equipping themselves with the resources to preserve and defend their rights' and cultures. Genna concentrated her work for Cultural Survival's news team, Quarterly magazine, and legal section on Latin America and Africa. Genna will be following her study of Latin America through the course of her Senior Honors Thesis on U.S. Drug Policy in Latin America: Comparison and Contrast of Colombia and Peru. Genna follows her passion, which often leads her behind the lens of a video camera stalking friends, family and strangers and recording our present for our future. Her work at DraftWorldWide Advertising, writing for the Tufts Daily, and engagement with Outbreath have taught her the power of the press, expression and truth. Genna is excited to have the chance to hone her videography and journalism skills in her fall course "Documentary for Social Change" under the instruction of Roberta Oster Sachs. Genna is grateful for all the opportunities she has been given. She looks forward to using her past experiences in her future endeavors.

Bonnie Rose is a senior majoring in International Relations with a regional concentration in the Middle East and Southeast Asia. She spent a productive year studying and volunteering throughout Israel before coming to Tufts, and she looks forward to conveying her passion for the country to others as President of Tufts Friends of Israel this year. Bonnie Rose also spent a fabulous semester of ethnographic research in Japan, where she cultivated a skill for slurping noodles. She has been playing the bass for over 10 years and has traveled with the Tufts Symphony Orchestra to such places as Greece and Jamaica. Her hobbies are skiing, napping on Saturdays, and tapping with a clicky eraser on the pages of books as she reads.

Lisa is a senior from Burlington, Vermont. She loves sports, especially soccer and running, and the outdoors, especially hiking and swimming. She has fun painting with watercolor, reading, cooking and dancing--depending on her mood. Her favorite food is Ethiopian because she thinks that it is so tasty, but also because she think that the concept is amazing and true. I never want to stop traveling because I think that it is important to see and to experience the world from different angles. She is majoring in Philosophy. She considers herself to be open-minded, but she likes to test this as often as possible. :) She hopes that over the next year, EPIIC will challenge her to understand her opinions more deeply and to enable her to think quickly and speak openly about issues that concern our world.

Ajaita, a name that isn't quite American but isn't quite Indian either - it means "undefeatable" in Hindi. Born and raised in New York, Ajaita is currently a sophomore at Tufts University and is planning to double major in Political Science and International Relations. She has loved foreign policy since high school through policy debate and now plans to link her passion for both foreign policy and genetics through the guidance of programs like EPIIC.

Aliyah is originally from Toledo, OH and is currently in her second year at Tufts University. She is currently pursuing a double major in Political Science and Community Health. She enjoys running and in the past has played JV soccer for Tufts. She is also a manager for Oxfam. She has a working knowledge of Spanish and hopes to study half a semester abroad in Spain and the other half in the Tufts in-Washington program next year. Aliyah is very excited about taking part in EPIIC and hopes to challenge her views of the world as she knows it.

Thomas was born in Johannesburg, South Africa but has lived in Costa Rica, Chile, Spain, and now the United States. He is a citizen of Chile and the United Kingdom, therefore it is challenging when people ask him where he's from, but usually he considers himself Chilean since it is there where he grew up. His 'internationalism' has almost instinctively given him an interest in global issues and world interaction. Throughout high school he was involved in Model United Nations and became Ambassador at THIMUN (The Hague MUN). Now he is a sophomore at Tufts and pursuing an International Relations major and a minor in Entrepreneurial Leadership. He is currently Co-President of the Young Entrepreneurs Club and hoping to one day start his own business. This past summer he was an intern at CNN En Espanol, which was a great way of joining his interest in writing with his concern for global issues. When he was younger he wrote short stories, fiction, and mystery, all for fun. Now his writing tends to focus more on poetry, both in English and Spanish. In his poetry he tries to fuse the vision of the ideal with the sometimes harsh and crude reality. He has found that through writing he can learn a surprising amount about who he is and what he believes in. He also enjoys playing soccer as a way of keeping fit, having fun with friends, and continuing the history and legacy of the 'beautiful game.'

blood type: A positive, with a tendency towards anemia. Sarah means princess but you can call her by her last name (pr. slee-va) which derives from the Polish word for Plum. She is a senior majoring in International Relations and minoring in English. The offspring of two Poles, she has spent much of her life attempting to be anything but and trying to assimilate into the American culture. In recent years, however, she has become actively interested in issues, events, and ways of life beyond America's borders. She sees EPIIC as a means of becoming a more informed citizen and decision maker. Within these studies, the interplay between culture and politics is of particular interest to her. She enjoys short stories, getting lost in museums, filling sketchbooks, cooking dinner, and laughing. She anticipates that, at the very least, knowledge gleaned through EPIIC will make her a sparkling member of any dinner party (she jokes).

Jonathan is a sophomore who studied in the school of engineering until this semester (fall 03) and is now considering changing his major to something along the lines of International Relations and Economics. He grew up in Paris, France and moved to New York City three years ago. He studied at the Lycee Francais de New York, where he earned his French Scientific Baccalaureate, with honors. There he was able to find a balance between European refinement and both American energy and entrepreneurship. In NYC, he discovered his passion for music (especially electronic music), and "turntablism". He has a strong interest in international and domestic politics, their media coverage and the political decision process. Lately, he has been traveling to Latin America, and he developed an interest in Latin American politics, sustaining continuing economic development, in particular in Ecuador. Seeking better understanding of the Middle East conflict, he participated in AIPAC's 2003 Schusterman Advocacy Summer Saban National Political Leadership Training Seminar. Tufts is opening a world of knowledge and opportunities for him, further stimulating the development of his critical thinking. Guided by science, arts and human experiences, he is more than ever expanding his mind, as EPIIC guides him on his quest. He is also a board member of the International Club. He loves technology and hopes his imagination will take him a long way.

Adrienne was born in Brussels, Belgium. She is a citizen of Belgium and the Netherlands, and a permanent resident of the United States. Currently a freshman at Tufts, Adrienne spent the last year volunteering in western and southern Africa. Her experiences abroad have further intensified her interests in international relations and humanitarian aid issues. Other interests of hers include flute performance, figure skating, and kickboxing.

Esra is a senior double majoring in History and International Relations with a focus on Europe and the Middle East. She was born in Istanbul, Turkey and came to the United States after graduating from Robert College of Istanbul to get a first-hand knowledge of American civilization and pursue her academic interests. After two years of Dewick, Tisch, Eaton, Haskell and varsity sailing with the Tufts Sailing Team, she decided to learn more about the European civilization on its own continent. With this aim in mind, she arranged a study abroad program that gave her the chance to learn about the European Union in its actual institutions and also travel in Western, Central and Eastern Europe including the Baltics. After working in the Istanbul International Film Festival as a guide to guest directors such as Jim Sheridan, she traveled to Bosnia-Herzegovina and spent the summer of 2003 in Mostar. Esra was involved in a project called 'Builders for Peace,' created and run by Dr. Tom Butler of Harvard University. The program was in collaboration with the Mostar 2004 project, which aims to reconstruct the historical city of Mostar (built in the 16th century), including the destroyed Old Bridge, to its pre-war state by 2004. As well as working at a mosque that was built in 1557 but heavily damaged by Serbian grenades in 1993, she documented the volunteer experience along with the impressions of post-war life in Mostar with her video camera. Now that she is back at Tufts, she wishes to turn this personal experience into something concrete and accessible for those interested. In this respect, she will make a documentary and write her Senior Honors Thesis about one of the most culturally rich cities of the world, Mostar. Her passions include documentaries, films, learning about different cultures, researching, writing and making things with her hands. As a side note, the most interesting thing that happened to her was getting struck by lightning. Maybe that's why she considers life as a gift and wants to make the most of it everyday.